Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

Web 2.0 and Participatory Culture

(Tutorial: Kai Soh – Wednesday, 5:00pm – 8:00pm)


Web 2.0 and Social Media

Before the introduction of Web 2.0, the internet was built upon an old school model where computers were connected to each other through a common basic data transfer protocol called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (Hinton and Hjorth, 2013). With the constant need for improvement and advancement in technology, the Web 2.0 model was introduced where computers were able to take over more cumbersome tasks such as formatting and presentation, thus allowing users to concentrate solely on their content. Australian new media theorists Anna Munster and Andrew Murphie (2009) saw the Web 2.0 culture to be “dynamic, participatory, engaged, interoperable, user-centred, open, collectively intelligent, and so on”.

Furthermore, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) believe that the Web 2.0 model adopted and encouraged an environment where technical barriers were removed, thus allowing the emergence of social networking sites. They help understand this concept by giving the example of a blog. Websites such as ‘WordPress’, ‘BlogSpot’ and ‘Tumblr’ provide the user with an easy to navigate and user-friendly platform, where they can worry less about the ‘look’ of their content and instead focus on the written material.

Screen Shot 2017-04-26 at 12.30.54 amFuchs (2014) explained key distinctions between the various web models where “web 1.0 is a computer- based networked system of human cognition, web 2.0 a computer-based networked system of human communication, web 3.0 a computer-based networked system of human co-operation”. Elaborating on the Web 2.0 and 3.0 models, Shirky (2008, p. 20f) states that

Social media and social software are tools that increase our ability to share, to co- operate, with one another, and to take collective action, all outside the framework of traditional institutional institutions and organizations” (cited in Fuchs, 2014).

Participatory Culture

Participatory culture is quite the opposite of a traditional communication model, where a small amount of mass media outlets speaks to a large group of people, mostly generating a one-way conversation (Fuchs, 2014). Henry Jenkins (2008) believes that “participatory culture is mainly about expressions, engagement, creation, sharing, experience, contributions and feelings”. Making up the crux of the participatory culture is social media. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) consider the tool to be a participative medium where users are constantly and actively providing information of their daily activities, their lives and even their thoughts and opinions.


As stated above, the Web 2.0 model has allowed room for increased participation by making content creation and distribution less challenging, and with the emergence of social media, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) feel that in many cases, it is also free. Participation can take place in various forms, it could be either through a ‘like’ button on Facebook, or through User Generated Content (UGC) where users forward content made by others, or even User Created Content (UCC) where the content is created by the user (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). Examples of online platforms which encapsulate the essence of participatory culture are websites such as Wikipedia, Flickr, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, where a smaller community comes together to share their knowledge and experiences with the broader community (Fuchs, 2014).

Jenkins (2008), Bird (2011), and Costello and Moore (2007) share similar views on participatory culture and user generated content – or ‘produsers’ as Bruns coined the term (Bird, 2011). They believe that online communities, and fan communities in particular, while bonding and shaping each other’s views and opinions, have the potential to form a powerful bargaining unit. Due to the ever-increasing impact of these communities in today’s online world, several large corporations have begun to change their perception and means of interaction with their fans. Companies now seek to establish a stronger connection with their consumers by giving the opportunities to participate and shape new content on their behalf, particularly through their online or social media platforms.

Example #1 – Share A Coke Campaign

Coke_metro3A significant example of participatory culture where a large corporation turned to their consumers, inviting them to participate and help create a unique product, is the Share A Coke campaign initiated by the Coca-Cola company. In 2012, Coca-Cola (Coke) noticed that the brand “had lost its relevance and cool factor with Australia” (Ogilvy Australia, 2012). The company thus decided that they needed to come up with an initiative which reaches out to the local population of Australia and “reconnect” (Ogilvy, 2013) on a personal level rather than commercial. This iconic brand then proceeded to print 150 of the most common Australian names on Coke bottle labels and distributed them to stores over night.

Coca-Cola’s stunt pulled in an overwhelming response across both social and traditional media, with consumers rushing to either purchase a Coke with their name on it, or gift it to a friend, or both. “Australia had fallen in love” (Ogilvy, 2013) and Coke had over thousands of requests for additional names flooding their social media platforms. Coca-Cola, took into account the volume of participation they garnered across their social media channels, and left a mark amongst their consumers by launching 50 more names on Coke bottles as well as setting up booths across cities where consumers can print their own names on Coke bottles.

The Share A Coke campaign secured record statistics for their stunt with over 76,000 ‘virtual Coke cans’ shared, along with an 870% increase in Facebook traffic and 5% increase in customer base (Ogilvy, 2013). Conceptualised and executed by Ogilvy Australia, the campaign displays key characteristics of a participatory culture where a company invited its consumers to participate and voice their opinions to help shape the company’s image. In addition, the launch of 50 additional names upon popular demand displays how consumers came together on an online platform and worked together to form a ‘powerful bargaining unit’.

Example #2 – Jimmy Kimmel Live

Another example which utilizes the concept of participatory culture is popular talk show host Jimmy Kimmel’s YouTube challenges. Focusing primarily on the sub-concepts of participatory culture, several segments of the show largely depend on user-generated content by its audiences.

maxresdefaultTo give an example, running in its sixth year, the ‘Halloween Candy YouTube Challenge’ (Jimmy Kimmel Live, 2016) is an annual segment in which parents record their children’s reaction while they are told that their Halloween candy is gone. The segment is light, fun-filled and humorous where parents then submit videos to the show through YouTube, with a select few being aired during the episodes (Hamedy, 2016).

C6BuVduU8AA1NqZIn addition to the Halloween Candy prank, Jimmy Kimmel Live also has similar segments lined up for Father’s Day and April Fool’s Day (Hamedy, 2016). The late night talk show however not only focuses on YouTube challenges to be ‘in sync’ with today’s digitally buzzing participatory culture, it also hosts a ‘mean tweets’ segment where celebrities read out unpleasant tweets about them that are sent in by the audiences through a dedicated hashtag on twitter (Jimmy Kimmel Live, 2014).

Jimmy Kimmel Live’s user generated content segments showcase the importance of including a consumer to build upon their relationship with brand. Mashable reports that since the launch of these segments, the show’s YouTube channel has built a massive audience with over 8 million channel subscribers and growing (Hamedy, 2016).

From the above case studies, it is clear that in today’s digital age, social media plays a significantly large role in shaping a consumer’s opinion, as well as to garner their attention and loyalty. A participatory culture enables the consumer to feel valued, and leads to the creation of not only a local network, but even a global network, where one may not have existed in the first place.

(WC: 1,248)



Assessment 3

Social, Locative and Mobile media

Student name: Simeng Chang  (Carrie )

Student ID:  460152075

Tutorial: Thursday 6:00pm – 9:00pm    Cherry Baylosis

                 Word count: 1411 worlds


Social, Locative and Mobile media


With the development of the network, network technology is more and more perfect, the global gradually stepped into the information age at present. In recent years, social media has been more and more popular, people has been relying on social media increasingly, which has become an indispensable project in people’s life, especially the mobile media. Mobile social media is a global phenomenon, but also local at every point (Hjorth and Arnold 2013).  With the technique of Location Based Services (LBS) came out, it was well integrated and used in the social media (Hjorth & Hinton, 2013). LBS includes two meanings; the first is to determine the mobile device or user’s geographic location, the second is to provide all kinds of information related to the location service. Over the course of MECO 6936, discussed the meaning of place and space in social media and the influence of LBS for Mobile social media and games.


Core concept

All over the globe, location-based services such as the global positioning system (GPS), geo tagging and Google Maps have become a pervasive part of everyday life through platforms and devices such as smartphones, Android devices, tablets and portable gaming devices.  (Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).  Space is more abstract than location, the place is real, but sometimes space needs to imagine. LBSs utilise various features in smartphones (including GPS, and various methods of triangulating position based on proximity to cell-phone towers and wireless networks) in order to determine the location of the user in geographic space ( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).With the development of social media and technology, Mobile social media and social games are also beginning to converge with other technologies, such as LBSs, that continue to redefine the uses of the mobile device. Although LBSs have been available in mobile devices since the early 1990s, it is only fairly recently that LBSs have become a feature of smartphones, and so have started to become available to people who would not otherwise have gone out to purchase a separate device such as a GPS unit ( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).  For obvious reasons, the place has always played an important role in mobile media (Ito 2002; Hjorth 2005). Mobile media highlights the various, oftentacit notions of place as something that is lived and imagined, psychological and geographic (Hjorth 2012). These ‘hybrid’ spaces, as Adriana de Souza e Silva calls them, create social situations in which borders between remote and contiguous contexts no longer can be clearly defined (Gordon and de Souza e Silva 2011: 86). We have been more and more mix the real world and virtual world together and produce a certain commercial value.



In recent years, positioning and mobile media bring lots of influence on society. They are not only bringing more business opportunities but also reduce the distance from person to person in the society. We cannot underestimate the influence of Network and locative media (Farman2011). As a result of these developments,  smartphones growing popularity there has been according to a 2013 Pew Internet study, notable growth in use of location-based services, with ‘growing numbers of [US] Internet users adding a new layer of location information to their posts, and a majority of [US] smartphone owners us[ing] their phones’ location-based services’ (Zickuhr, 2013) Digital, mobile maps change how we navigate and conceptualise place.( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).  As mobile media converges with social and locative technologies, new forms and practices are emerging that are primarily focused on developing social connections. These technologies can be seen as increasingly overlaying space with digital information in order to create new places that are mediated in part by the technology itself ( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013). Positioning technology used in the more and more applications, such as games, maps and social media as well as the App of the camera. LBS games like Foursquare and Jiepang highlight how the place cannot be mapped just as a geographic or physical location, but also reflects cultural, emotional and psychological dimensions ( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).


Additionally, through the convergence of social, locative and mobile media we see there will some controversial problems. In LBSs we see an overlaying of place with the social and personal whereby the electronic is superimposed onto the geographic in new ways. In particular, by sharing an image and comment about a place through LBSs, users can create different ways to experience and record journeys and, in turn, impact upon how place is memorialized ( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).  Secondly, the service of location in Mobile social media also can appear sometimes privacy crisis. Like Foursquare, Facebook uses Points of Interest (POIs), which are human-determined features on a map (or in a geodata set), with each element occupying a particular point. POIs, as Barreneche (2012b) notes, ‘may include name, current location, category, address, telephone, email, social media accounts, URI. (Wilken, R. 2014 ).


Case studies

  1. Along with the use of social media, such as Weibo, Facebook and WeChat. Lots of people can communicate through these social media to share their information. Like the list of Hyunjin. She waited for her friend Soohyun in a café in Shinchon, She took a few photos then quickly uploaded it, along with the caption ‘Waiting’, to a few social media sites with location-based services (LBSs) like Facebook Places and Cyworld minihompy. When her another friend see this message, nearby, then ran to find her ( Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).


These social media users through by LBS of the track of the physical space and social networking Interact with their friends, make their relationship more closely. In addition, lots of people use the WeChat. This APP has one of the function is “nearby”. People can go through it to find another person, who they don’t know and add them become a new friend.


  1. In recent years, positioning technology used in more and more applications, such as games, maps and social media, and camera applications. This has brought social media a lot of customers. As of 2010, Facebook had ‘200million people around the world [who were] actively using Facebook from a phone’, a number that had tripled from the previous year and was only likely to continue growing (Tseng, 2010). With the increasing of the customer base, which brings more beneficial economic effect. The company of social media can use these customers to increase the fee of advertisement. Additionally, the platform of social media can use the LBS to help clients to increase popularity. For example, in the Weibo, one of the features is “nearby,” People can search nearby users to share information, like food, music and some tourist attractions. Like this picture.              微博

Through this function, a lot of people can find the perimeter shops or restaurant, and there is some user evaluation under it. Friends can also comment on each other, it not only increase their communication but also can bring more convenience to the public.


3 Instagram is one of the most popular social media in recent years, which launched from 2010, now it has more than 150 million upload pictures. (Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013). Instagram can allow users to shoot, edit and add location to share photos (Hjorth & Hinton, 2013).


When a user upload photos can add the location of the photo was taken. At the same time, users can also upload pictures of location view others. Instagram forebode a new generation of visual art.  With these new applications, often working in collaboration with social and locative media, camera-phone images have been given new contexts (Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. 2013).


Development and discussion

Through the analysis of examples and discussion, LBS is critical for social media. It not only combines the place also combines the space. It can help people expend their field of vision and can reduce the distance between their friends. In addition, this function can bring some commercial value for company of social media. Of course, LBS is also have some disadvantages. For example, the implications of Facebook embracing mobile and location are likely to be far-reaching. For those concerned about the personal data and privacy challenges posed by locative media, and Facebook’s accrual of location data coupled with its own notorious privacy track record, such developments are likely to generate considerable disquiet. (Wilken, R. 2014 ). So when people using this function, they should be careful their safe and privacy.


Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (203). Social, Locative and Mobile Media Understanding Social Media (pp. 120 – 135). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.


Wilken, R. (2014). Places Nearby: Facebook as a location-based social media platform. New Media & Society, 16(7), 1087-1103.


Farman, J. (2012). Locative Interfaces and Social Media Mobile Interface Theory: Embodied Space and Locative Media (pp. 56-75). New York: Routledge.



Assessment 3

Social Media Games

Name: Haoqi Zhao

SID: 450422845

Tutorial Time: Thursday 6pm-9pm

Tutor: Cherry Baylosis



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(Source: https://ec2-52-74-216-204.ap-southeast

At present, mobile devices have already developed the potential of other types of media like newspaper, radio, film and television. Meanwhile, portable devices such as mobile phones and handheld game devices are becoming the mediums for hearing, vision and touch (Torres & Goggin, 2014). Moreover, mobile phones provide a platform for creating a lively relationship between users and virtual worlds because it is easy to play games, surf the Internet and check social media on our mobile phones (Goggin & Hjorth, 2014). The social media also be considerably emphasised in MECO6936 class. In particular, the most interesting part of this course for me is ‘social media games’. Specifically, social media games are becoming a vital part of the general experience of social media, demanding attention. Hjorth and Hinton (2013) define social media games are the special games run by social network sites (SNS), which are an integral component of utilising SNS for many users. Social media games have been not only a source of entertainment but also a source of sociality that it would play a crucial role in building social media subscriptions when players find friends. Conversely, it also plays a pivotal role in social network sites to engage new users and provide a method for SNS users to keep and develop relationships with family and friends. Compared with the traditional computer games, social media games are played by different people with different demographics and motivations. As Juul (as cited in Hjorth & Hinton, 2013) states, the development of social media games is a casual revolution, constituting a ‘gamification’ of culture.

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During the semester, our group is going to run a campaign named bethefilter. We will proactively use social media like Facebook to engage more target audiences. As mentioned above, social media games are a part of the experience of social media and understanding social media games is significant for the students who are studying social media. Therefore, researching social media games is related to our work.

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This article will briefly demonstrate the background of social media games, critically describe the social media games and finally introduce how social media games will work in our social media campaign.


In the past western culture, media stereotypically characterised computer games as unsociable activities for socially incompetent children. Nevertheless, the development of the computer game industry in modern society has partly changed this stereotype. Besides, more people nowadays are playing a broader variety of games in unusual ways because of the emergence of casual games. As the name supposes, casual games are easy to learn and it could be played enjoyably without the high degree of attention,  therefore, it would not cost too much time. Because of that, casual games now are occupying a wider market than conventional games (Hjorth & Hinton, 2013).

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In other words, casual games not only provide an easier experience than conventional games but also offer an experience that players are more flexible to control their game time so that they are easy to accept casual games in their daily life. In short, casual games create a significant opportunity to redefine how all technologies combine worlds and bodies together to build mixture embodiments for game players (Goggin & Hjorth, 2014). As Hjorth and Hinton (2013) claim, mobile casual games are based on smartphones and app stores, and web-based casual games rely on SNS. Here, at the intersection of social media and casual games, we could see the emergence of social media games.

Social media games


图片 5(Source:

Social media gamers get contact with the game through social media like Facebook. According to Springer (2013), small business companies dedicate resources and time to social media platforms that about 70% of that spent over half networking time on SNS in 2013. They have viewed social media as one of the key forms of networking, substituting conventional offline networking models quickly. In our bethefilter campaign, we are also going to use Facebook as our main social media platform to post information and engage target audiences. Under this context, using social media games on our Facebook page’s timeline would boost page interaction and improve Facebook engagement. Social media games on our Facebook page would provide lots of fun for us and our followers, encouraging followers to comment, like and share the content thereby building community awareness around our brand. The fans or followers would be engaged and come back to our pages over and over again, they would also have more chances to know about us and our brand (McCullough, 2013).


Apart from engaging the social media followers, social media games also play a significant role in enhancing the educational experience. Gee (as cited in Parise & Crosina, 2012) contends that social media games reflect the exploratory learning cycle which could improve decision-making skills to make judgements when students face the complex situation. This learning environment also teach students to become creative like the game goals possibly ask students to make solutions, content and characters.

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Critically, although Thomas and Brown (as cited in Parise & Crosina, 2012) argue that social media games could create a participatory and engaging classroom culture and stimulate students’ curiosity and imagination, therefore forming fertile grounds for studying, this kind of teaching model is divorced from the conventional textbook-and-test education that students may face the challenge to adapt. Even more, Kalhour and Ng (2016) also argue that when social media gamers start to firstly contact with social games through social media like Facebook, most of them get addicted to the games and spend excessive time on the games so that their common daily lives are affected. But overall, these issues would be addressed because most of the social media games demand players to work in groups to solve problems under time restriction and pressure so that social media games could promote cooperation and teamwork. Teamwork in the social media games environment also reflects the growing significance of virtual work structures of higher education (Parise & Crosina, 2012). Additionally, Kalhour and Ng (2016) believe that social media game producing companies would make policies to prevent social media game players from addicting to the games, and the government could offer tax motivations for socially responsible corporations to limit money and time that gamers spend on the game.

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Social media games play a key role in engaging with the social media fans and educational experience, and carry more advantages far outweigh its disadvantages. For our bethefilter campaign, it is advisable for us to use social media games as our tactic in the rest of semester. According to McCullough (2013), we are suggested to start a game named ‘Tell the Story’ on the Facebook page to enhance our Facebook engagement. To begin with, we would create a graphic and share the first sentence like ‘there are so many fake news in social media, please be critical and filter it’ in the story and then attract more followers to participate the game to update and complete this story. Finally, we are going to post a subsequent update to show the story as it evolves. Through this way, creating a story with our fans together and involving them in the storytelling.


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To draw a conclusion, the mobile phone is embedded deeply and pervasively in the modern society, even rebuilding the world. The development of casual games and SNS lead to the emergence of social media games which build on the mobile devices and websites as a flexible artefact, founded by a large technological system (Torres & Goggin, 2014). As the games that are played in the circumstance of SNS, social media games now have attracted a large number of people, brought new users to SNS and engaged with more players both in games and social media. Social media games are social because of the social engagement that players could make connections with their friends or family online, making games more enjoyable, and the games provide interesting ways for gamers to socialise in the online environment (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013).

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Goggin, G., & Hjorth, L. (2014). Paying Attention to Angry Birds. In G. Goggin & L. Hjorth (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Mobile Media (pp. 207–275).

Hjorth, L., & Hinton, S. (2013). Social Media Games. Understanding Social Media (pp. 100–119). London: SAGE.

Kalhour, M., & Ng, J. C. Y. (2016). The dark side of social media game: the addiction of social gamers. Economia e Politica Industriale , 43(2), 219-230.

McCullough, C. (2013). 4 Fun Ways to Improve Your Facebook Engagement. Retrieved April 25, 2017, from

Parise, S., & Crosina, E. (2012). How a Mobile Social Media Game Can Enhance the Educational Experience. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 8(3), 209-211.

Springer, P. (2013). 3 Tips for Getting in on the Social Media Game. Retrieved April 25, 2017, from

Torres, C. A., & Goggin, G. (2014). Mobile social gambling: Poker’s next frontier. Mobile Media & Communication, 2(1), 94-109.




Assessment 3

User Created Content: Exploring Social Media Participation in Web 2.0

Xueyi Ma – SID 460478610

Tutorial: Thursday 12-3pm, Fiona Andreallo

Word count: 1604 words

In the era of Web 2.0, social media is growing as a participatory medium for people to get involved in online activities (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013a). Characterized by user created content (UCC), social media improves the level of democratization in user production and distribution (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). Media consumers are also producers who can make and disseminate their original content (Bird, 2011). Unlike one-way communication of mass media, social media provides free and accessible space for users to interact with each other (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013b).

To examine the extending participation and the behind motivations of participation in Web 2.0 environment, Hinton and Hjorth give an insight into the idea of UCC across social media (2013c).

Participation and Three Categories of UCC

UCC can be fallen into three categories. The first category is creative content, which is often distributed in the form of text, image, audio and video across different social network sites (SNSs) (McKenzie et al., 2012). These SNSs have common basic features such as status updates, comment thread and content-sharing, thereby establishing the participative communication amongst users (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). YouTube is a typical medium for each individual to create and distribute creative content. Take a YouTuber named Maangchi as an example. Maangchi is an amateur of Korean cuisine. She creates her YouTube channel to record her daily cooking and to share popular Korean recipes. The cooking videos uploaded by Maangchi are a kind of creative content. Unlike the traditional passive audience, Maangchi plays an active role in her user practice on YouTube. Beyond those people who are just watching videos, Maangchi takes the initiative to act as a producer, sharing her creative ideas of cooking and promoting her Korean culture capital (Bird, 2011). Under each video, YouTube offers ‘like’ and ‘dislike’ buttons, and a free comments area. It encourages other users to create their content based on Maangchi’s video, which directs an accessible way to participate in the seeding material. It also enhances the connection between the producer and the audiences. Through the comment thread, any comment can be made and replied to publicly by any individual. It allows audiences to directly exchange their thoughts and feelings with others and helps them to find their virtual communities that share similar interests and emotion (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013b). In the open participative context, making creative content facilitates the intimacy among media users (McKenzie et al., 2012).

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(Source: Screenshots from a YouTube video of Maangchi)

(Source: Screenshot of the App Uber)

WechatIMG1.pngThe second variety of UCC emphasizes small-scale tools which are developed to take advantage of the existing creative content (McKenzie et al., 2012). The app Uber is a representative small-scale tool, which is displayed for free downloading online. As an app, Uber utilizes the interface of mobile phone to establish a virtual realm of open data relevant to transportation. By allowing the location visible, Uber users can see the cabs nearby on the digital map through the mobile screen. Users can also let the drivers know where they are and track the driver’s arrival after requesting a ride via mobile devices. It builds a close interaction between the passenger and the driver through the mobility of technology. Making and accepting a ride-share request can be done anywhere at any time in Uber’s online transportation networks. Beyond the limitation of time and space, Uber shows its superiority in user participation for its technical affordance. Tying online activities to offline practices, Uber operates the authorized data sets and generates the real-time traffic information which is available to the public.

Collaborative content is the third type of UCC, which enables groups of users to contribute to a sharing creative content (McKenzie et al., 2012). The sharing content is created from crowd sourcing via open source software (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). Google Drive is a proper illustration of collaborative content. As a free accessible archive, Google Drive offers a safe online place for users to put their files and allows them to invite others to work together on any of the files. By accepting the invitation, the groups of people are enabled to edit, amend and comment on the shared document simultaneously. Different participant has a different coloured cursor in the collaboration which can reveal each individual’s input. It makes the communication straight and clear amongst editors. For example, if there is a controversial part in the file, participants can easily find out who the creator is. Then by starting a live chat on the documentation page, the rest of people can share and exchange ideas with the creator directly, thereby reaching an agreed result. It indicates that the practice of sharing creative content via social media is essentially common practice amongst various connected users (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). The collaboration helps minimize mistakes and bias, and at the same time enriches the information and knowledge contained in the created content.

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(Source: Screenshots of my Google Drive)

From the three perspectives, UCC, which relies on social media platforms, broadens the way people behave in online activities. Media users are no longer passive in the participatory environment. They can actively react to the source of news and make useful inputs for the disseminated content (Bird, 2011). This content production by consumers across social media is defined as ‘produsage’. Hinton and Hjorth think that produsage is becoming the mainstream user practice of UCC in today’s networked communication (2013d). It reinforces the level of media participation and helps online audiences recognize their belonged networks and communities in cyberspace (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013d).

Issues of UCC across Social Media Participation

Hinton and Hjorth approach UCC framework by exploring two types of produsage: citizen journalism and online activism (2013c). Although UCC brings open participation for presenting and distributing diverse ideas, knowledge and culture, there are still some issues for the creation or co-creation.

Because of the easy accessibility of social media, not only the professionals but also the amateurs are capable of reporting and disseminating news (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). It carries an inevitable question of whether the delivered information in public is authentic. Recently, there is a kind of quality issue of UCC happened on Facebook. On April 21, a man named Jerome Junior in Singapore uploaded a video of eggs he bought in a coffee shop. In his Facebook post, he said that the egg yolks were extremely stiff while the egg whites were fluid. For the strange taste of the eggs, Jerome claimed that the eggs were artificial from China and he warned the public against the man-made eggs and the coffee shop. The post was quickly replicated across the Internet, which rose heat concerns in the society for the quality of imported food especially from China (Min, 2017). However, with the investigation from the Agri-Food & Veterinary Authority (AVA), Jerome’s reporting has been confirmed as fake news. AVA states that the eggs in the café are from Malaysia and they are not synthetic (Min, 2017). Meanwhile, China is not on the list of fresh eggs importers (Min, 2017).


 (Source: Retrieved from


(Source: Screenshot of AVA Facebook Homepage)

 The case of ‘fake eggs’ also reflects the powerful spread and wide-ranging influence of social media. As a popular tool used by activists, social media engage users in online campaigns which accords with offline realities (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). However, a problem of the online activism is that whether the core concepts are truly accepted by the audiences is hard to say (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). Because of the easy involvement across social media, people can show their support for a campaign by clicking the ‘like’ or ‘share’ buttons even without a basic understanding of its core concept (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). Take the Ice Bucket Challenge as an example. It is an online campaign launched to raise people’s consciousness of the neurological disease ALS by pouring ice and water on the participant’s head (Woolf, 2016). Although performing the ice bucket challenge and uploading the video to SNSs decrease the phenomenon of slacktivism, the delivery of the fundraising idea is blurred (Woolf, 2016). Some participants paid more attention to the challenge than the campaign itself. They forgot to mention ALS in their content production and ignored the original intention of the campaign (Woolf, 2016).


(Source: Retrieved from

UCC Related to the Campaign for the Con

As referred to Hinton and Hjorth, UCC is a mirror of the user that reflects the emotion, creativity, social capital and culture background (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013c). Embraced the idea of ‘participatory’, UCC enables media users to freely deliver their message and interpret the seeding content. Therefore, how to utilise UCC to engage the target audience in the concerts is the main emphasis of our work.

Traced back to the three categories of UCC, we plan to display our seeding content in various forms including posters, meme pictures and promotion videos. For the efficient and effective delivery of information, the apps of three SNSs (Facebook, Twitter & Instagram) are selected. Relying on the interface of mobile devices, the three apps can provide the specific location of the scheduled performances under the daily updates. The basic features such as hashtag, comment, are also utilized to facilitate the interaction amongst audience.

To greatly increase the participation of the potential audience, we prepare raffles as a specific UCC for the campaign. Learnt from the online activism of the ice bucket challenge, people who share a concert story with three Facebook friends can have a chance to win a free ticket. It might push the audience not be slacktivists to some extent.

In general, we design the campaign for the Con consistent with the concept of UCC. By making attractive forms of seeding content, active participation is encouraged and expected, thereby helping gain a growing recognition of the Con.


Bird, S. E. (2011). Are we all produsers now? Convergence and media audience practices. Cultural Studies25(4-5), 502-516.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013a). What is Web 2.0? Understanding Social Media (pp. 7-31). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013b). Social Network Sites. Understanding Social Media (pp. 32-54). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013c). Participation and User Created Content. Understanding Social Media (pp. 55-76). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013d). Conclusion. Understanding Social Media (pp. 136-139). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Min, C. (2017). No ‘fake eggs’ sold at Ang Mo Kio coffeeshop: AVAThe Straits Times. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from

McKenzie, P., Burkell, J., Wong, L., Whippey, C., Trosow, S., & McNally, M. (2012). User-generated online content 1: Overview, current state and context. First Monday, 17(6). doi:

Woolf, N. (2016). Remember the ice bucket challenge? It just funded an ALS breakthroughthe Guardian. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from

Assessment 3

Produsers: fansub

Tutor: Kai Soh | Class: Thursday, 12pm | Author: Miki Zuo(SID 460442231)


图片 1

In 2006, Time magazine named “you” as the Person of the Year. It means that ordinary people now could have the power to control the information age. This is because the rapid development of digital technologies provide access for audiences to participate in the generation of media content. It has transformed the status of audiences as the end of information receiving in the traditional media to the “produser” in the web2.0.


Academic research on “produsers”

The notion of “produser” evolved from “prosumer” which is proposed by Toffler (1981), he used this term to describe that more passive consumers tend to provide services to others and themselves, and depending on their own interests and expertise to produce and consume. He predicts further that “prosumer” will use electronic media to find and connect with others who have the similar interests. This concept has developed to “produser” by Bruns (2006,2) to describe the participants who are users as well as producers to produce ideas in a collaborative, participatory environment, and “these produsers involve in produsage——the collaborative and continuous building and extending of existing content in pursuit of further improvement”.

Hinton and Hjorth (2013) agree with that audience in web 2.0 have become participates and they further discuss what is the delimitation of the participation in the context of online media. They explain “participation” through two aspects. One is public response such as comments on online show, another one is the audience as media producer like online celebrities who update video on YouTube.

Jenkins was one of those who support the later aspect, he (2006) argues that fans are the produsers and fan activity is “produsage”, since fans could communicate with each other about media and participate in the creation of digital content. However, about his argument that online fans could represent the way all audiences will interact with media (2007), Bird (2013) has different opinions. She points out that majority of people are not produsers, which is supported by Van Dijck (2009) who reports that 1% of media audiences are active producers of online content, 10% interact by commenting and 89% interact by viewing.

In terms of the emergence of produsers, Costello & Moore (2007) and Jenkins (2007) all agree that it could benefit audience to resist the influence of media industries who have to modify their products to response the audience demand. Jenkins also argues that it could built a kind of participatory culture related to fans sharing their opinion, communicate and collaborate with each other. Apart from entertainment, Bruns (2006) suggests that produsers could be beneficial for democracy like citizen journalists that traditional news media are more likely to open doors for citizen and share authority. However, Bird (2013) claims that it would lead to underestimate the media influence on audiences, because media industry could learn quickly about how to take the advantage of fan activities and vital media. For instance, they could corporate with online leaders of fans, and collect personal information through audience online activities for the purpose of the targeted marketing.

From my perspective, it is true that produsers could have positive effects on media practice and society development, but when everyone has microphone, it is impossible that all media content could be found, especially the voices of vulnerable groups. More importantly, media industries could privilege particular produsers to increase its control and influence of audiences. For example, the verify accounts of Sina Weibo are regarded as accounts with high credibility, and these accounts is related to their social and economic status. Compared with other ordinary accounts, they could enjoy privilege with a large number of followers, and their opinion could be easier to attract attention. There is the inequality between different groups which is relevant to real world. Some of these accounts are actually supported by media companies, who are seen as individual, indeed their activities all comply with the direction of companies. Media industries also could collaborate with these online celebrities to achieve their goals.

Some portraits of accounts with verified signs

According to Hinton and Hjorth (2013), we use the words “produsers” in order to highlight the active and participative of audience in the age of new media, in the future, which would be possibly returned to a term like ‘user’, because it is common understanding that users are also producers.

Case study: fansub

Fansub is a version of a foreign film or foreign television program which has been translated by fans who usually organized by amateur and subtitled into a language other than that of the original. These fansub groups with no formal organization and commercial motives, and they distribute their videos on the internet for audience to watch and download free.

The fansub of American and Korean series

In China, due to strict governmental media regulation, it is difficult to be accessed through legitimate channels(Tian,2011). Therefore, the demand for watching foreign films and television programs cannot be meet. It has facilitated the development of fansub groups. They produce a large number of videos for audiences by translated, subtitled and produced timely. Although, it is emerged for popular Japanese animations in the middle of 1990s, nowadays, it includes various films and television programs from different countries such as America, Thailand and Korea (Tian,2011). There are many popular and influential fansub groups in China such as FIX and RENREN.

图片 7

The logo of FIX fansub group

In this case, social media provide opportunities to connect those who have ability and interest about translation, subtitle and video producing. It could be realized because of the democratization of new media technologies that could be used by ordinary people who are not professional. At the same time, video portals provide distribution platforms for them to upgrade and diffuse. In these media environment, the consumers of media content have become media producers. They are the professional amateur whose production did not fit into ideas of either amateur production or professional production, but occupied a territory somewhere between (Leadbeater et al.,2004, cited in Hinton and Hjorth, 2013). On the other word, they are consumers of foreign media content, but also the producers of subtitled products for other audiences.

There are some disputes about fansub. Firstly, the fansub groups are the one of the representatives of produsers which has the access to media production because of new technologies. Moreover, fansub is the supplement of professional organizations that are lake of meeting the audiences’ demand.

However, Yang (2012) claims that they still controlled by media industries. It is difficult for fansub groups to develop without funding supports, some groups choose corporation with media companies or earning by advertising. More importantly, fansub is problematic due to copy right. While according to “The RPOC Copyright Law, ” produced by individual for learning without commercial motivation complies with the law, spreading on the internet publicly is infringement of copyright. In 2014, it is suspected that the sever of RENREN fansub group was sealed up by National Copyright Administration of China, and its website was closed.

Because of gradually strict regulations and laws, as well as intensified competition, it is difficult to survive for fansub groups. However, the development of fansub is in order to satisfy audience’s demand, it would exist, unless media industries could response audiences’ demand.


From passive audiences in the theories of magic bullet and Hypodermic needle to produsers in the information age, it is a great change on the role of audiences and the relationship between audiences and media. Users could be producers to express their own voice and produce content for others, as well as connection with those who have the same interests, which could diminish the influence of media industries and push them to response audiences’ demand. However, it does not mean that media influence on audiences could be ignored. It is impossible that everyone is produser, which could bring inequality between different social and economic status.


Bird, S. E. (2011). Are we all produsers now? Convergence and media audience practices. Cultural Studies, 25(4-5), 502-516.

Bruns, A. (2006). Towards produsage: Futures for user-led content production.

Costello, V., & Moore, B. (2007). Cultural outlaws an examination of audience activity and online television fandom. Television & New Media, 8(2), 124-143.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Understanding social media. Sage.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. NYU press.

Jenkins, H. (2007). Afterword: The future of fandom. Fandom: Identities and communities in a mediated world, 357-364.

Tian, Y. (2011). Fansub cyber culture in China.

Toffler, A., & Alvin, T. (1981). The third wave (pp. 32-33). New York: Bantam books.

Van Dijck, J. (2009). Users like you? Theorizing agency in user-generated content. Media, culture & society, 31(1), 41-58.

Yang,M.(2012).fansub groups and the cross-country communication of Japanese animation: the paradox of audience initiative. News and communication research, 19 (5), 48-55.

Assessment 3

“It’s Raw and Visceral”: Facebook Live’s Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Tutor: Kai Soh | Class: Tuesday, 5pm | Author: Ellyna Tjohnardi (SID 460331670)

The world is still reeling in shock from the recent ‘Facebook Live Killer’ horror. It was supposed to be a peaceful Easter Sunday on a residential area in Cleveland, Ohio, when around 11.11am, ‘Stevie Steve’ live broadcast the act of him mercilessly shooting an unarmed elderly man, Robert Goodwin Sr at point blank range. The video was only reported more than 1 hour 45 minutes later and the perpetrator’s account was disabled 23 minutes after the report was received (Osofsky, 2017). But by then, it was all too late, the criminal had gone missing and the innocent man’s life, lost.

Let us pause for a second and ‘scroll down’ the history timeline to the end of 2015, when Mark Zuckerberg announced Facebook’s latest feature (or product): Facebook Live. The new feature was sold as a tool that will enable users to share their lives to the world unedited, unscripted, raw and spontaneous. Initially, it was only accessible only to the few Facebook ‘elites’, such as verified journalists and celebrities. However, as of January 2016, Facebook Live finally ‘unleashed’ itself to its 2 billion users globally and the rest is history.

Mobile, Locative and Social

Facebook Live, at the time of its launch, was the latest mobile, locative and social media tool combo. As if the world needs another of such products! But what sets it apart, according to Mark, is the audience. If the content broadcast is set as ‘Public’, it is going to appear on Facebook Live Map (Figure 1), a feature that enables users to view real-time contents streamed live from all over the world. Admittedly, this is not an original concept even at the time it was launched, because Periscope, another mobile application developed by Twitter, was already launched in March 2015. But because the Daily Active Users statistics differ significantly, where Twitter only sees 100 million users log on daily (DMR, 2017), as opposed to 1.23 billion users on Facebook (Zephoria, 2017), the reach and impact of Facebook Live, is much more significant.

Facebook Live Map
Figure 1. Facebook Live Map (source:

According to Mark, his team “built this technology platform so we can go and support whatever the most personal and emotional and raw and visceral ways people want to communicate…” (Honan, 2016). ‘Raw’ and ‘visceral’, those were rather interesting choice of adjectives, to say least. Had Mark predicted that his company’s latest brainchild would be abused or misused by the handful psychopathic users just as Marshall McLuhan, in 1967, predicted how technology will change the society in 20th Century? The tales of horror that unfolded in the months after Facebook Live was released, could inspire a top-rating CSI Digital episode, or perhaps the inspiration was drawn from the movies instead? Raw and visceral indeed.

User Created Content

Facebook Live, like any other social media (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013, pg 2), rely largely on the participation of the users to create contents, in this case, it’s the instantaneous and unscripted videos. After all, Facebook is hell-bent convinced that video is the future of social media (Honan, 2016). The impact of user created content (UCC) from such participatory culture has been largely positive and empowering. For example, someone broadcasts Mardi Gras parade live from Sydney and shares the message of love in equality to the public.

Increasingly though, a rather disturbing pattern is emerging: social media is increasingly used to share some of lowest moments of humanity. Horrific Live broadcasts of a 14-year-old girl committing suicide in Florida (CRTV, 2017), gang-raping in Sweden, the Cleveland ‘Facebook Live Killer’ and most recently, a father who murdered his baby daughter in Thailand (Reuters, 2017), are just a few that made it to the news. In a society where attention is a ‘commodity’, ‘performance crimes’ are perfect examples of UCC that granted the creators instant infamy and attention. The Cleveland killer’s video has been viewed 258,000 times by mid-afternoon before it was taken down (Reuters, 2017). The term was coined criminal justice professor at the University of Central Florida as “a meshing of technology, comfort with self-surveillance, the willing voyeurism of others and a thirst for celebrity status, even if achieved by nefarious means” (Panama City News Herald, 2017).

To quote Hinton & Hjorth (2013, Chapter 7), “locative media shapes, and is shaped by a variety of factors such as culture, age and temporal differences”. Knowing that there is actually an audience who viewed and took no action when these crimes happened in real time, sheds a deeply troubling insight about our humanity, if such thing still exists at all. Can we almost predict what sort of ‘performance crime’ that might be broadcast if it were to take place in Australia?

Intimate Publics

The word ‘intimacy’ in the age of social media is no longer merely about physical or emotional closeness and the actors involved no longer need to have known each other beforehand. With the affordances of social media, the word has been conferred new meanings: “the strength of relationships” (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013, chapter 3) between one user with another, the frequency and quality of interaction, the fact that users share common identities of belong to the same online groups or communities. Social media also help to mediate interpersonal intimacies, abridging physical and geographical barriers that was significant in the past.

Mark himself admitted that Facebook Live is “designed to be resistant to moderation” (Knibbs, 2017), which infers some sense of intimacy between the involved actors. The broadcaster didn’t feel any privacy violation because they perform the act voluntarily, and the viewers get a glimpse of another stranger’s personal life. Furthermore, such interaction is not anonymous, because the content creator and viewers can see each other’s names. In the case of the 14 year-old girl who committed suicide live for the world to see (Codd, 2017), in the not so distant past suicide was done in private, or for those who desire one last ‘drama’ in their lives, might opt to take their own lives in public. It was a different feeling though, because the person could see the crowd physically, but not hear their thoughts or comments from afar. With Facebook Live, the girl could actually see and read her viewers’ comments (verbal thoughts), some were even taunts to dare her to commit the act, sadly, before she drifted away.


One could tell that such live ‘performance crime’ is slowly creeping south, starting from United States to Europe, and most recently now, Thailand. It may be only a matter of time when Australia will report its first Facebook Live crime. And when that day actually happens, how long will it take for the authority to take action? Will we prove that Australians have better levels of morality to help stop the crime, or will people eventually uncover the secretly sadistic and voyeuristic nature of humanity?

In a note posted by Mark in February 2017, Facebook is currently developing artificial intelligence “to understand more quickly and accurately what is happening across our community” (Zuckerberg, 2017). The AI is still at its infancy, but even so, Mark claimed that it has successfully generated a third of all reports to the content reviewer team (Zuckerbeg, 2017). If Facebook could create an algorithm that can predict that a woman is pregnant and push maternity-related advertisement on her page, let us all have faith that Facebook’s AI will eventually mine enough data about human nature to be able to accurately spot terror or criminal intentions and alert the law enforcement before them happening. In the meantime, Facebook appeals to our humanity, or what’s left of it, to help police our online community (Zuckerberg, 2017). After all, it is not guns or self-thinking robots that kill people, it’s people killing each other.


Reuters. (2017, April 25). Thai man broadcasts baby daughter’s murder live on Facebook. Reuters. Retrieved from

Timeline of Facebook. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 25 April, 2017 from

Honan, M. (2016, April 6). Why Facebook And Mark Zuckerberg Went All In On Live Video. Buzzfeed. Retrieved from

Zuckerberg, M. (2017, February 17). Building Global Community. Facebook. Retrieved from

Clark, L. (2017, April 21). Facebook needs to stop relying on us to police its content. It’s time its AI took responsibility. Wired. Retrieved from

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). What is Web 2.0? In Understanding Social Media. London: SAGE. Retrieved from

Smith, C. (2017, March 22). 388 Amazing Twitter Statistics and Facts. DMR. Retrieved from

The Top 20 Valuable Facebook Statistics – Updated April 2017. (2017, April 3). Zephoria Digital Marketing. Retrieved from

Periscope (app). (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved 25 April, 2017 from

OUR VIEW: Our increasingly anti-social social media. (2017, April 20). Panama City News Herald. Retrieved from

Osofsky, J. (2017, April 17). Community Standards and Reporting. Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved from

Knibbs, K. (2017, April 20). The Unstoppable Brutality of Facebook Live. The Ringer. Retrieved from

Codd, C. (2017, January 25). Miami-Dade Teen In Foster Care Live Streams Her Death On Facebook. CBS Miami. Retrieved from

Naughton, J. (2017, April 23). How Facebook became a home to psychopaths. The Guardian. Retrieved from


Naya Li_assignment3_UCC

UCC (User Created Content)

Name: Naya Li


Tutor and tutorial day and time: Kai, Tuesday 5pm-8pm


UCC, user created content represents Web 2.0 services and is constituted by creative Internet-based material which is publicly available (Min, Yun & Woo 2012, cited in Hsu & Hsu 2008). According to Sam & Larissa, the created content involves a wide range of messages, not only creativity, but also time, emotion and a various forms of capital including social, cultural and sometimes economic. They also note that with the development of electronic equipment, ways we connected with events are experiencing great changes (cited in Ito and Okabe 2005,2006; Hjorth 2007; Mork Petersen 2008). Sam & Larissa argues that it still values, sometimes can be expanded to a wider range, even some of the information created by the users are only within the existing offline relationships. They also distinguish the differences between user generated content (UGC) and the user created content (UCC). UGC mostly refers to information that users supply about themselves on SNSs, such as personal profiles. However, UCC is the content intentionally created for expressing purpose.


Sam & Larissa present a thorough analysis and a deep understanding of UCC. First, they use the concept of ‘participation’ as the fundamental knowledge. The idea of participation in social media is reviewed and expanded on the conceptualization of audiences/users as producers to define what we mean by producer. After that, they pay all the attention directly on UCC.


The current situation of UCC is presented at the beginning. Then they explain some misunderstandings of this conception. The differences between UGC and UCC are well explained by using examples on social media. Furthermore, the authors hold a critical sight into this idea, and analyze some of the weakness exists in UCC.


After describing the big picture above, Sam & Larissa approach to the detail content of the UCC. First, they illustrate the crowd sourcing as a great example in combining user production in online environment. The online Trove service of the National Library of Australia and Wikipedia has been proposed as classical and well-known samples of crowd sourcing. After this, they move to the two practical phenomenon of UCC, citizen journalism and online activism. Both impacts and criticisms of these two phenomenon are discussed after a deep and detailed explanation about the basic conception.


During this semester, our group work related closely to UCC. Our main strategy is using online campaign to promote offline events, and the online campaign involves UCC in different ways because we believe that is an efficient method to gain more audiences both online and offline.


At the beginning of our work, we decided students aged from 18 to 25 years old and tourists both domestic and international as our target audiences with consideration related to UCC to some extent.


There are several reasons related to UCC about why we choose these two groups. Young generation are active in social media, and they post frequently which are benefit to our campaign. We intend to encourage them to create and post related content with hashtags, and I will introduce these content in the following part. When it comes to the tourists, they are a large group in Sydney. When people are traveling, they tend to share and post more pictures or videos with short descriptions. These kinds of UCC may not have great impacts on the whole internet, but it has essential effects among their existing weak relationships.


In the second part of our work, we choose Facebook, Instagram, Wechat and Twitter as our main platforms, and Meetup, Couchsurfing and Tinder as our supporting platforms. According to Sam & Larissa (cited in Burgess 2007;Mork Petersen 2008), many social media sites exist only because the content created by their users, such as Facebook. Our strategy towards these platforms is to encourage users to create content related to the Con to a largest extent and expand our audiences through this.


We came up with some activities and competitions, and some of them are closely related to the conception of UCC.


First, by creating a weekly profile of a student performing in the Lunchbreak concerts, a monthly profile of alumni and monthly engagement with alumni influencers (like the Presets), there is potential to get our message to their friends and followers, expanding on the audience through the weak links that exist between the student/influencer, their followers and the Con (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe 2007; Granovetter, 1973). Even if the content is not actually clearly created by the students or alumni, they have become a part of the content as the Con involves a large number of people. Furthermore, these content are uploaded to the internet for the purpose of being viewed by audiences, as Sam & Larissa mentioned in 2017. And we can simply define the Con as a ‘user’ to promote its identification and improve its popularity in the online community.


Second, we set up a series of activities, such as Community questions, short competitions and “Ask Me Anything (Musical)” (AMAM) to promote the Con and its concerts whilst also engaging with our audiences, encouraging UCC on the main platforms which are low threshold for participation so the target audiences are more likely to participate (Hinton and Hjorth, 2013).


For example, we encourage our audiences to recreate new opera videos following the sample uploaded by the Con, and post it online. It can be any kinds, funny, creative or professional. Also we provide free concerts tickets for the best video creators. Hjorth notes in 2011 using the example of Korea which is a country filled up with competitive atmosphere that competition can motivate users’ passion in creating content to a great extent, especially among young generations. It is a win-win UCC strategies because not only target audiences can gain attention and shape their identities, but also the Con.


During the whole process, I also came up with some new understandings of the UCC conception. There can be a wider understanding of the ‘users’. It can not only be an individual as we mostly think, but also a community, organization or any kind of group such as Con as long as they are trying to gain more attention or making profits by creating content on the internet. Furthermore, I figured out from the practice that even if UCC happened online, but it is closely related with offline activities. I found out that this kinds of relationships are useful and effective which can not be ignored, especially towards some online campaigns which only own a small group of audiences at the beginning.


From my perspective, the most interesting part of this class is that it includes many practical things, and it really needs me to have different kinds of skills to deal with these problems. And this class tells me that you really need to go to the Con, enjoy the concerts and talk with the teachers, students and audiences. Only though this way, you can have a deeper understanding of your clients. Sometimes people prefer to search online because it saves time, and they think they have known enough about the task. However, after you go there, see and feel, you will find out there is far more information for you to dig. So for me, I think these practical experience is really interesting and wealthy for me.


In the future study and life, I think it is really important to spend more time outdoors to see and feel what is happening instead of staying in front of the computer. And as a media worker, I will remember to talk to people, and know about what they want before starting my work. Dealing with people is an essential skill and I think I have make progress in this class. Furthermore, I will always keep a plan B in the future. Everything changes quickly as an amazing speed, even during this class we frequently change our content for different reasons. So it is important for a media worker to keep a plan B in case facing this constantly changing world.




Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “Friends:” social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, 12(4),


Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Participation and User Created Content. In Understanding Social Media (pp. 55 – 76). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.


Kim, M., Kim, W., & Moon, Y. (2012). How User-Created-Content (UCC) Service Quality Influences User Satisfaction and Behaviour (pp. 255 – 268). Wiley Online Library.


Hjorth, L. (2011). Locating the online: Creativity and user-created content in Seoul. University of Queensland, School of Journalism and Communication.