Assessment · Assessment 3 · Social Media Communication

Produsage and Participatory Culture

Xueying Du


Thursday 12-3


With the advent of Network Era, social communication among people has experienced a great change (Wyrwoll, 2014). In the past, social media platforms were not mature enough and were unable to provide a great deal of opportunities for users’ participation and interactivity. At Current, people prefer connecting with others through social networking platforms where audience can play a role of user as well as producer. The popularity and ubiquity of social media has generated some new concepts and added new meaning to participatory culture. This essay will explain the core concepts related to new media audience participation and analyse the Sina Weibo as a case study.


Concepts which are closely linked with social media users will be illustrated in the following.


The concept ‘produsage’, which was created by an Australia media professor at Queensland University of Technology called Axel Bruns, is the combination of the word ‘produce’ and the word ‘usage’. This concept displays that the role of audience has transferred from the user role to multiple roles such as participant and producer (Bruns, 2008). The produsage term are used to describe the user-created content, which means that contents on social networking communities are generated by users. The other term relevant to produsage is the term produser. The term produser refers to new media audience and embodies that new media audience play a dominant role in content creation.


Professional generated content (PGC) means that contents are created by professional producers and organizations. PGC is a traditional type of content creation, and the mode of PGC can ensure a high quality of contents. The majority of online video platforms represents this kind of content production. For example, a Chinese website called iQIYI. iQIYI provides a variety of videos for its audience such as films, TV series and TV shows. These videos are published officially by professional companies or studios, and iQIYI needs to purchase the copyright of these videos to obtain the permission for showing these videos. iQIYI also publish TV shows which are produced independently by this platform’s professional studios.


Figure 1 iQIYI platform


User-generated content or user-created content is a significant concept as it shows that participants act as new roles in new media. Audience plays an active and dominant role in social media since users are both consumers and producers (Flew, 2008). A significant proportion of new media platforms require user-led creation, and this user-led innovation is an important symbol of new media. The UGC mode has become an essential part of social media, and one example is the digital memes. Digital memes can be easily produced by users and are popular in daily networking communication. Users, especially the young generation, like creating funny Internet memes and sending or posting the memes to express personal feelings in humorous way.


Figure 2 digital memes

Participatory Culture

The concept participatory culture is related to the generation of culture and contents which requires the creativity and innovation of users, audiences, consumers or fans (Fuchs, 2014). Different from traditional media, new media involves users active participation and participatory culture emphasize this characteristic. As a new model, participatory culture encourage users to be produsers rather than senders or recipients. One typical example of participatory culture is the bullet screen. The bullet screen originated from Japan is now popular in China. The bullet screen provides opportunities for users’ interactivity and participation because audiences are able to read other users’ comments, send comments and reply to other comments while watching videos. This mode can satisfy the demand of audience engagement and communication, at the same time, it can enhance entertainment.


Figure 3 the bullet screen

Case study: Sina Weibo

Sina Weibo is a popular and famous social media platforms in China. Users can post microblogs, pictures or videos, communicate and interact with others by commenting, liking, or reposting, express opinions and follow popular or controversial events through this influential social networking site (Lei et al., 2018). According to Weibo Data Center (2017), at the end of September, the number of daily active users is 165 million and the number of monthly active users is 376 million. In addition, the survey data shows that more than 80 per cent of users are people under 30 years old. Thus, Sina Weibo is a representative Chinese social media platform which is popular with the young generation.


Figure 4 Sina Weibo


Figure 5 Weibo Survey Data

Characteristics: Produsage and Participatory Culture

As a microblogging platform, Weibo is based on millions of users post blogs on its site. The UGC mode, therefore, is an essential part of Weibo platform. Participants play a role of producer as well as user and a great deal of user-created content is posted and disseminated through this site. Users act as produsers and can post pictures they made or other people made, their selfies and different kind of digital memes. Weibo leads to the generation of V-bloggers who possess a certain number of followers and post blogs daily. For example, a popular V-blogger called MeiRiYiGou post dog-related blogs daily. At current, 6.97 million users follow this blogger and each blog post can obtain other users’ comments, likes and reposts. Users who love dogs can find interesting and lovely pictures or videos of dogs. Moreover, a great deal of user-led creation are displayed by famous V-bloggers on Weibo site. Weibo generates fans communities to enhance users participation as well. This platform contain a super topic function which is mainly used by fans. Users can enter the super topic communities through clicking the hashtag. Famous and popular celebrities’ names are the common hashtags. For example, the super topic#鹿晗. 鹿晗(Lu Han) is a popular Chinese idol who has more than 40 million followers on Weibo, and the super topic #鹿晗 managed by his fans has approximately 5.72 million posts and 215.6 billion pageviews up to now. In this super topic community, creative fans post pictures and videos produced by themselves and fans can communicate and interact with each other. The UGC mode palys a significant and essential part on the Sina Weibo platform, which embodies the produsage concept. In terms of the participatory culture, the Weibo site provides attractive functions to encourage users to participate in and create innovative contents.


Figure 6 V-blogger: MeiRiYiGou


Figure 7 the super topic#鹿晗

Problems and Regulation

Some problems relevant to characteristics of Sina Weibo generated by this site as well. One of the problems is the embezzlement of contents as contents such as videos and pictures posted by users can be easily downloaded and sent to others. In some cases, users unwittingly post and spread other people’s contents. Thus, users’ awareness of copyright should be improved. Weibo provide each users with a special watermark which will be marked on pictures or videos they posted. However, words posted online can still be copied and the watermark could be cut or changed. Accordingly, the government or regulatory department need to introduce effective laws to solve related problems.

Another problem is the privacy disclosure. Some contents posted on Weibo involved other users privacy. Users would post photos or videos leaking private information which could be diffused and used by intentional individuals or organizations. In another case, personal information about celebrities could be found on this site such as the picture of celebrities’ passport information, the flight information of popular idols. The insecurity of privacy is a common problem of social media platforms. The Chinese government implements strict rules and regulations on the operation of social media platforms. At the same time, platforms themselves should also impose relevant restrictions on contents posted online.

Cyber violence is another serious problems. Some users dislike or hate other bloggers and attack them through extreme measures. Attackers swear, insult and slander the users or even the users’ family. The worse case is that some bloggers are under the pressure of curse as extremists would post contents such as pictures of the users’ or their family members’ death or funeral. This kind of cyberbullying can result in serious psychological problems of victims and their family and friends. The majority of victims are celebrities and their fans. Currently, Weibo are devoted to promote the real-name system which can alleviate problems caused by anonymity. Produsers would regulate and be liable for their behaviour in real-name system. In addition, Weibo allows users to close comment function and helps prevent attacking contents. In severe cases, attackers’ Weibo accounts would be suspended permanently.


Produsage is the trend of new media development and the major characteristic of social media. Social media platforms such as Weibo is based on user-led creation and innovation and promote users’ participation and interactivity. The advent of Web 2.0 contributes to a high level of users’ engagement in online activities (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013a). However, the UGC mode and users participatory can generate disadvantages as well. Both the government and the industry itself should implement regulation and laws to address related problems. Social media has become an essential part of people’s daily life, and it is also confronted with challenges.



Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and beyond: From production to produsage. Peter Lang, 2008.

Flew, T. (2008). New media: An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Fuchs, C. (2014). Social media: A critical introduction. Sage.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013a). What is Web 2.0? Understanding Social Media. (pp. 7-31). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Lei, K., Liu, Y., Zhong, S., Liu, Y., Xu, K., Shen, Y., & Yang, M. (2018). Understanding User Behavior in Sina Weibo Online Social Network: A Community Approach. IEEE Access, 6, 13302-13316.

Weibo Data Center. (2017). Weibo User Development Report. Retrieved 23th April 2018, from:

Wyrwoll, C. (2014). Social media: Fundamentals, models, and ranking of user-generated content. Springer, 2014.












Assessment · Assessment 3 · Social Media Communication · Uncategorized

Fake News In Social Media


Assignment 3

Bishnu Shrestha

SID: 480127778

Tutor: Cherry Baylosis, Thursday 12pm-3pm


Social media is beating all the traditional means of communication and mass media and is being the dominant means for not only the interpersonal and group communication but also being the converged platform replacing the old mass media with the possibilities of sharing news and views; advertisement and promotional materials in the form of text, graphics and audio visual format. Along with these opportunities it the challenges in the objectivity of user generated content and the issue of fake news and contents are the immersing challenges of social media. It is the time to rethink about the power and effects social media so that it can be used positively utilizing the freedom hidden within the same platform.

Development, Possibilities and Increasing Users of Social Media

Social media platforms are ascending towards gaining more active users day by day along with the ongoing efforts by the social media companies towards enhancement of their platforms, inventing new possibilities how the user could involve in creating and disseminating the content more easily, conveniently and interestingly. After emerging of the platform web 2.0, social media has opened the opportunity to a new direction of its uses more than to connect with friends and family activities. Interpersonal and group communications are some of its closed communication examples along with the possibilities of open mass communications but its unique than other traditional mass media because of its algorithmic ability which guides specific content towards the specific type of user.

According to the social media supporting agency “we are social” more than 3 billion population use social media which is 42% of the total population and almost 1 million people started using social media for the first time every day over the past year.

Digital data

Early research offered clues as to why social media has emerged, as national surveys found that computer use was connected with friends and family activities, a vehicle to avoid loneliness and development of new habits (Lipschultz, 2018). The popularity of the Social Web has been overwhelming. It is reported in [8] that 67 % of online adults are connected to one or more social media, and that a large proportion of them first check in to their favorite social media site everyday(Surya., Cécile., & Athman., 2013).

Types of Rumor and Fake News

Social media platform is opened for all individuals and organizations who can share their ideas freely. There is not any editorial censorship and control to check the authenticity of the provided information and knowledge. Anyone can enjoy this freedom which can be taken as the upmost level of freedom of experience. Using this feature of free flow of information the concept of citizen journalism has emerged breaching the governmental control and censorship over mainstream news media. But in other side rumors and fake news posting are also the critical issues in social media.

A recent research shows that the fake news spread even faster than the true news “False news spread “farther, faster, deeper, and more broadly” than true news on Twitter between 2006 and 2017, a team of US scientists has found(Bogle, 2018 ).” The research found that false political news traveled deeper and more broadly, reached more people, and was more viral than any other category of false information. False political news also diffused deeper more quickly, and reached more than 20,000 people nearly three times faster than all other types of false news reached 10,000 people (Vosoughi., Roy., & Aral., 2018).

Fake news is also the broad term in itself. What makes it fake, how much exaggeration or tone in the statement makes it fake or is it fully imaginary?

Rubin, Chen, & Conroy discussed three types of fake news:

a) Fabrication:

It is the exposed falsification, fabrication, or exaggeration, and may require                         investigation in the information.

b) Hoaxing

Hoaxing deceptions that go beyond the merely playful and “cause material loss                   or harm to the victim”

c) Satire detection

If readers are aware of the humorous intent, they may no longer be predisposed                 to take the information at face value.

(Rubin, Chen, & Conroy, 2016)

a) Fabrication:

The type a fabrication is the fraudulent reporting or even called yellow journalism which was seen prior to the online media and is even seen nowadays in online media which sensualize or reports false incidents to increase traffic or profits. One of its recent example can be seen the news “NEPAL: CLIMBER SURVIVES BRUTAL SEXUAL ASSAULT BY YETI-LIKE CREATURE” in “” published in April 19, 2018. The news is missing name of the writer and not sufficient evidence and proof of source quoting. It quotes “Kathmandu Herald” but it is even imaginary. There is no any media named Kathmandu herald.

Fake news

At the same time we can see more aware community who questioned crosscheck the facts. Shawn Rice, a freelance journalist immediately finds out this as false news and write about this on “”.

Fake news finding 1

He also finds someone who knows the person finds out this news as misappropriated and write on twitter.

Fake news finding twitter

b) Hoaxing

We can even find numerous hoaxing examples using social media causing harm to the multinational companies to the individual. A person named “Oscar vargas” lost his money on the facebook hoax that some random person sent message to him on messenger that he won 950 thousand dollars. The scammers also lured him that the winners can get paid from cheque, western union or on bank account. The scammer asked for money to release the winning amount and the Oscar lost $ 1,030.

Facebook luck draw

Such kind of hoaxing with the ill intention of earning is common in social media either by the fraud personal message and emails to gain money by luring people or asking the donation for fake cause, or by creating the rumors which lead loss to someone.

c) Satire detection

Satirical posts in the social media which the audience can determine it as just for fun for satirical might not have the negative impact but it also depends upon the types of audience and their level of media literacy. Such satire might be related to current events, politicians, film stars, against or for some cause or campaigns or even the satire to the same platform of social media form which it is being shared.

FB Mark

This is twisting the story with manipulation in the content but people can find it easily as this is fake but could enjoy at the same time. Political and current affair humors are also been practiced from newspaper from a long time ago in the form of satirical article and cartoon.

The intention behind the fake news might be the organizational or personal interest for getting more attention, diverting the viewers in their site and generate monetary profit or just presenting the personal views. Whatsoever these contents are misleading the audiences and is affecting more to those who have less media literacy.

Importance of Media Literacy

Media literacy has not been prioritized in formal education sector. When the old generation comes to know about the fake news and contents in social media they might think that this will quickly mislead their children and the biasness towards entire social media might be developed.

But it will be unfair to see social media sites only as potentially harmful to young people. A media literacy perspective allows us to examine content and technology from a variety of angles, not just one. Developments in social media presented new questions about how the public processes information and entertainment (Lipschultz, 2018).

Social media are the easiest and popular tools to disseminate the information more than news and ideas but also for advertisement and business purposes along with the possibilities and freedom to criticize the content in itself. So, this is the two way communication where anyone can argue to the content. But to build this capacity, to judge the contents rather than believing it in blindfold media literacy is very important.

Developing literacy in social media is a wide range of learning because of the ongoing development and invention of new technologies day by day. Convergence in the media itself makes it need to learn more rather than just read and understand the message. The new media literacy also includes audio visual literacy that how a message could be manipulated in graphics, audio effects and visuals.


Social media can be taken as the upmost level of freedom of expression and a strong answer to those who wants gatekeeping on journalism and cause barrier of free flow of information but at the same time the issues of fake news is a great challenge towards the whole world which can mislead the people easily who have low level of media literacy.

The fake news seen in the social media can be categorized as various types regarding its nature. Some might be misleading in the interpretation or some might be totally hoax. Both of these types of content adversely affect the society and the entities that are linked with the issue. People cannot easily find out this as the fake news but some of the fake news might be just for humor which have no or less harm to the people.

It is very difficult to control over the contents of social media and might also violate the freedom of expression. The only way is to create media literacy which will reduce creating of such fake contents and increase understanding and interpretation capacity at the level of audience.


Bogle, A. (2018 ). ‘Fake news’ spreads faster online than the truth, finds biggest-ever study. Retrieved from


Lipschultz, J. H. (2018). Social Media Communication: Concepts, Practices, Data, Law and Ethics (Second ed.). New York and London

News, A. (Writer). (2016). Local man loses money to Facebook scam. In.

Rice, S. (2018). Nepal Climber Surviving Brutal Sexual Assault By Yeti-Like Creature Is Fake News. Retrieved from

Rubin, V. L., Chen, Y., & Conroy, N. J. (2016). Deception Detection for News: Three Types of Fakes. Association for Information Science and Technology.

Satire. (2018). Retrieved from

Surya., N., Cécile., P., & Athman., B. (2013). Trusting the Social Web: issues and challenges Springer Science+Business Media, 8. doi:10.1007/s11280-013-0252-2

Vosoughi., S., Roy., D., & Aral., S. (2018). The Spread of True and False News Online. Retrieved from

worldnewsdailyreport. (2018). Retrieved from

Zuger, C. G. (2018). Retrieved from


Assessment · Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

location-based services, social and cultural products

Name: Quanjiao Wang
SID Number: 450433427
Class: Kai’s Wednesday 5pm to 8pm

As we know, in terms of the development of location-based services (LBS), it has experienced several times of revolution. According to Hinton & Hjorth (2013), the first generation of LBSs was only the devices can provide single-use, such as using in higher-end motor vehicles in Australia. And then, they summarize the Second-generation LBSs are GPS or GPS-like services, like Google Maps on smartphones. Nowadays, following the widely use of mobile devices, LBSs adapt for commercial use, and they are applied in newer and more creative ways as well.

What are Location Based Services?

What are Location Based Services?

Social product

Actually, what do the role LBSs play now to the public? On the one side, LBSs can be regarded as one kind of social products. ‘Through the convergence of social, locative and mobile media we are seeing the contested notion of the place becoming even more complicated.’ (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). According to Hinton & Hjorth, Michel de Certeau gave different defines to space and place. The former means a physical and geographical place, while another one means ‘dinstinct location’.

Hinton & Hjorth (2013) explain that ‘place is a space invested with emotional meaning’, which means a place is given a social attribute. Tim Cresswell (cited in Hinton & Hjorth, 2013) ‘defines a place as a meaningful site that combines location, locale, and sense of place’. Hutchinson (2015) thinks that the places we see in LBSs are a new expression of geographic location with the social and personal. Users show themselves to the public and to their families and friends by using location-based services.

Nearby Friends3

nearby friends1

nearby friends 2

As a new type of social media, the significant function of locative media is asking people to be social. Introduced by Constine (2014), ‘nearby Friends was built by the Glancee location sharing app team led by Andrea Vaccari that Facebook acquired in 2012.’Wilken (2014) says that  Facebook tries to sell Places to users via its blog writing that  ‘life happens in real time, and so should sharing’, including sharing concrete locations.Using nearby friends this LBS, a user can let his or her friends understand approximately ‘where you are’ and ‘how far away you are from them’. Also, the user can share your exact, real-time location with friends for a limited time. If possible, they can meet in the real place.

It is a very easy way to find someone if he or she surrounds you and is willing to share the location with you. You can meet up and spend time together. Ignoring the privacy and safety issue of the service, ‘nearby Friends could get people spending more time with friends in the real-world instead of online’, said by Constine (2014).

Personally, I think that users are eager to be social if they become ‘fans ‘who are frequently using LBSS. To be specific, when they recognize friends through Facebook nearby friends or other similar apps or sharing their individual stories with specific places where they are, they are delighted to keep close contact with their friends and even strangers. They hope to get concerns from others and interact with others.

It is true that many of us hope to integrate into the society, even specific circles, and using LBSs is a good way for us to communicate with the world. However, in my opinion, when we rely on sharing locations and stories more, we will feel lonelier or more anxious. Although a LBS are convenient for us to socialize, it may lead us to produce dependence. According to Turkle (2012), ‘The moment that people are alone, even for a few seconds, they become anxious, they panic, they fidget, they reach for a device.’

Cultural product

Also, users may describe a place with a deeper cultural meaning through using location-based services,. Hutchinson (2015) provides that ‘Farman notes augmented reality technologies that are coupled with cultural institutions “demonstrate the ways that mobile technologies are able to imbue space with meaning”’Hinton & Hjorth (2013) also say that ‘place cannot be mapped just as a geographic or physical location, but also reflects cultural, emotional and psychological dimensions.’ Furthermore, Hutchinson (2015) indicated that recently, cultural institutions are not only collecting and gathering cultural artifacts, while he states that ‘Chatzidimitris, Kavakli, Economou, and Gavalas (2013) suggest a current trend within cultural institutions is to provide accessible and entertaining projects that enable public access to archive collections.’ Liao & Humphreys (2014) have similar views. They think new mobile technologies can not only impact on how people connect with space and consume space, but also reproduce space with their special code.

As Hutchinson (2015) says, in order to fully understand the influence of LBSs on the relationship between people and space, we need to do some case studies from temporal, cultural and generational contexts. For those AR artists, LBSs can be fantastic cultural products. Take The Border Memorial: Frontera de Los Muertos as an example. It is an augmented reality program, ‘which creates augmented calacas (traditional Oaxacan skeletons commemorating the dead) on places where remains have been found near the US/Mexico border’ (Liao & Humphreys, 2014).


By using the project, people need to walk out into the specific points and read the landscape and stories happened there in the past. Then, the landscape itself begins to be meaningful and colorful. Even a campsite, discarded water bottles or other little details will become very specific. ‘The physical locality is everything to virtual objects’. After invention and application of such services, the place becomes ‘the prompt’ to call for information and users can access to the place without the prior knowledge of it. As The body Border Memorial intervention is intended to ask people to draw attention to the particular place and to memorialize and politicize this place, the place can be developed into the cultural product.

Not only artists but also normal people can create stories about the place they have been. But, we can not recognize whether the information they show is true or not. It may include some falsity. Turtle (2012) criticizes that if things take place in the real time and witnessed by the public, you can not control what you are going to say, how you can describe it. However, all things we present ourselves on the social media platforms, such as posting a location, the texting about the location as what we want them to be. We can edit, change details of the place. Which means ‘we get to retouch, the face, the voice, the flesh.’

Apply LBSs to the campaign

As Hutchinson (2015) said, ‘cultural institutions are not only responsible for collecting and storing cultural artifacts: most are required to provide public access to these collections to facilitate improved citizenry.’In terms of our Con’s campaign, we should not only show the show time or upload some photos or videos on social media. Actually, we also try to use LBSs as one of our approaches to attract more audiences.

From the social perspective, for example, we choose Facebook as one of our campaign platforms. Reviewing our research data, 40% of total users choose to use Facebook because ‘friends use it’ and 31% of users choose as ‘family use it’ (Sensis, 2016). So, Facebook is a good platform for our target audiences to share concert information with their friends and families. After listening to one charming concert, the audiences can share their experience with additional location information and encourage their friend to join it together next time.

From the cultural aspect, in particular, we use hashtags like #datewithcon and #becharmwithmusic to encourage people to share an image and comment about a place through LBSs, and we hope the audiences can create different ways to experience and record journeys. Therefore, in turn, impact upon how the place is memorialized. These posts can be regarded as cultural reproduction by the audiences. Especially for those amateur players (our secondary audiences) who are interested in music, they can be more positive to visit our concerts after reading those posts. Therefore, I think LBSs can promote cultural exchange in this area.


Constine, J. (2017). Facebook Launches “Nearby Friends” With Opt-In Real-Time Location Sharing To Help You Meet Up. TechCrunch. Retrieved 26 April 2017, from

Hjorth, L., & Hinton, S. (2013). Social, Locative and Mobile Media. In Understanding Social Media (pp. 120–135). London: SAGE.

Hutchinson, J. (2015). The Future of Digital Archive Collections: Augmenting Public Service Media Geolocative Archives. Mobile Media & Communication, Forthcoming.

Liao, T., & Humphreys, L. (2014). Layar-ed places: Using mobile augmented reality to tactically reengage, reproduce, and reappropriate public space. New Media & Society, Online, 1-18.

Sensis Social Media Report 2016.(2016). How Australian people and businesses are using social media.Retrieved 25 April 2017, from

Turkle, S. (2017). Connected, but alone?. Retrieved 25 April 2017, from

Wilken, R. (2014). Places Nearby: Facebook as a location-based social media platform. New Media & Society, 16(7), 1087-1103.

Assessment · Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

UCC and Digital Marketing

Vince Jin

SID: 460320227

Kai Thursday 12pm


Internet has become ubiquitous and of a vital need to human social life, people are keen on participating in virtual communities much more frequently than ever. As the Internet shift from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0, the concept of UCC (User Created Content) was introduced, because users expect to create contents that they prefer rather than consuming media contents passively (Hsu & Hsu, 2008). Since then, Internet companies provide various UCC services for meeting users’ demand, and these services have already dominated the web traffic. For instance, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube and Wikipedia are platforms that users are able to share their knowledge and get engage with others. Despite the different function, they all have one thing in common that users are the producers. Taking Facebook as the example, which is the most popular SNS, used by about 1.8 billion users, where people could generate their own media contents. Facebook is only a platform and does not publish any information, but construct a community for users to express personal ideas. It is an unalterable tendency that users are no longer just consumers but also creators.


In the reading of Participation and User Created Content (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013), authors firstly narrate the emergence of social media and emphasize the media ‘participation’ for introducing the topic of UCC. They present the background of the concept of UCC and make a distinction from UGC. Then, they state that users as producers are capable to create on the Internet due to the Web 2.0 and explain it with sorts of examples. After that, a specific explanation of  UCC was given as well as the understanding to this concept. In the following parts, what factors that drive the UCC are being discussed with the example of citizen journalism.

The Core Concept of UCC

According to Rhie, Kim and Lee (2010), UCC is representative of Web 2.0, also recognized as the User Generated Content (UGC). However, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) pointed out that there is a slight difference between UCC and UGC. UCC is content  entirely created by users while UGC is users forward something that is not created by themselves. For example, people upload some videos which are filmed by themselves to the Youtube, it recognized as the UCC. On the contrary, UGC is the video shared from other websites rather than filmed by the uploader. This difference has been confirmed by many scholars that UGC is not 100 percent of UGC.

In the last decade, the Internet users have witnessed the blossom of the virtual community. The Internet is a global scale community where users are able to make contacts with users from different nations, it is much beyond the physical social circle. Mass of contents are stored on the Internet, these contents are uploaded by digital communication where created by users (Shim & Lee, 2009) and consumed by the users (Kim, Moon & Kim, 2012). Therefore, users play vigorous roles and interact on the Internet rather than it is leading by network companies. Basically, there are three criteria to be fulfilled to define UCC: 1. Content is available in public over the Internet; 2. Reflects a “certain amount of creative effort,”; 3. “created outside of professional routines and practices” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).

Most UCC sites are non-commercial at the stage of start-up, whereas it has become an economic phenomenon recently (Vickery & Wunsch-Vincent, 2007). For example, Wechat is the major mobile social network site in China. In the beginning, it only provides interactional function and users could share life by posting photos with descriptions. After years, Wechat replace the QQ (a desktop SNS like MSN) to be the most used one in China because of it could be used on mobile phones. Due to the fact that a large population of users, Wechat decided to generate profit by offering promotion services to whatever large or small scale enterprises or even individuals. In addition, users so far could play mobile games on Wechat which is not belittled portion of their income.


UCC and Digital Marketing

Consumers believe the opinions or comments of their peers are more reliable than the information advertised by a brand (Carlson, 2016). In the cyberspace, consumers have ability to get access to reviews and ratings of a product easily. they could make a judgement whether a product worth its price by hearing others’ idea after their experience of the product. Therefore, a brand recognition might be build up once netizens have good feedbacks on a product.

Compare to the traditional marketing, digital marketing seems more effective because of the characteristics of internet. Besides a more large number of population, informations are transferred rapidly that cannot not be measured on the Internet. The most important point is that recommendation from other purchasers can have a huge influence on a consumer’s attitude towards a product. That represents a brand image could be created easily if a company really did an excellent digital marketing with the h1belp of UCC.

Red Bull is a sort of energy drinks sold by Red Bull GmbH, establish since 1987. It ranked 76th on the Forbes Most Powerful Brand List in 2015, and their drinks sold in over 170 countries. Red Bull tried to drive awareness of the extension of the brand and to sale their tropical flavoured “Summer Edition” energy drink for the Australian market, so they stared a social media campaign on Instagram (Quigley, 2016). In order to get attention of audiences on the new look of the cans, they portray summer days by posting images and videos which are using the yellow filters with the #thissummer hashtag . Red Bull had achieved a great success to engage audiences to create their contents in the campaign. The results of the campaign led to 9-point lift in favourablility of their brand and 1.2 million consumers had been reached.

How UCC Apply to the Campaign “The Con”

In our campaign, we apply UCC into our campaign greatly. Both two activities which are creating memes of performers and Guessing the music that others humming have reflected the theory. For the first one, the official account would post several memes of performers for the current week and invite others to create memes of these performers with their innovation (see Figure 1). In this activity, users are offered an opportunity to participate in creating their individual content. For the latter event, it is incredibly interesting that one person may holding a portrait of a musician and film a short video of humming a music clip (see Figure 2). The video need to be uploaded to the Youtube and post a status with the link of the video to invite at least three friends to guess what song he/she is humming in the video. Our aim is going to encourage more people to join in the campaign and have intrigued by the classic music. Using UCC might be a feasible method to engage more young people. In addition, contents we expect users to create have satisfied the three conditions of UCC that those contents are puplic avaliable, creativity and the users are all common audiences (neither professionals nor practices).


Utilizing UCC for social media campaigns have received highly attention from marketers. About 65% of young users would have an evaluation by surfing the Internet before purchasing (Carlson, 2016). Consumers are more likely to turn to social networks for advice, which had formed a new assessment method to value an item in their minds. Digital marketers must to seek the potential opportunities to arouse audiences’s passionate of creating. Engage audiences is first priority to have a digital marketing come through. That is the reason why UCC plays a vital role in a campaign.


Carlson, K. (2016). The Future and Importance of UGC in Digital Marketing. Retrieved from

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013b). Participation and User Created Content. In Understanding Social Media (pp. 55–76). London: SAGE.

Hsu, J. C. J., & Hsu, C. M. (2008). The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in a leading Chinese Web 2.0 company. The Business Review, 11(1), 84-89.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53, 59-68.

Kim, M. S., Moon, Y. J., & Kim, W. G. (2012). How User‐Created‐Content (UCC)    Service Quality Influences User Satisfaction and Behaviour. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 29(3), 255-267.

Quigley, A. (2016). 5 Successful Social Media Campaigns You Can Learn From. Retrieved from

Rhie, B. W., Kim, J. W., & Lee, H. J. (2010). User-Created Content Recommendation Using Tag Information and Content Metadata. Management Science and Financial Engineering, 16(2), 29-38.

Shim, S., & Lee, B. (2009). Internet portals’ strategic utilization of UCC and Web 2.0 ecology. Decision Support Systems, 47, 415-423.

Vickery, G., & Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2007). Participative web and user-created content: Web 2.0 wikis and social networking. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Assessment · Assessment 3 · Social Media Communication

MECO6936 Assessment Three

Name: Ashna Mehta

Student I.D.: 430242940

Class: Thursday 9:00am-12:00pm

The impact of location based services (LBSs) on social, locative and mobile media is one of the key concepts explored in Chapter Seven of Hinton and Hjorth’s ‘Understanding Social Media’. The chapter delves into the effects of location based services on a cultural, social and individual level, drawing upon examples of locative services on mobile social media such as FourSquare and Facebook. The chapter addresses the myriad of ways in which mobile social media is employed on a global scale, drawing upon the increasing popularity of smartphones as the primary cause for what Hinton and Hjorth have coined the “media evolution” (2013, p.121). Over the course of the chapter, Hinton and Hjorth acknowledge the shift in public perception of the smart phone from a tool for communication to a networked media tool, fostering the development of social media and games. The core concept of the chapter is the shift in the macro and micro understanding of space and place following the amalgamation of mobile media and social and locative technologies.

The core concept of the chapter is approached in concise, coherent manner, with real world examples of the varying applications of social and locative media. It is established that over time, social, locative and mobile media has transcended barriers of age, gender and location, leading to the creation of “new forms of intimacy and different contexts for the expression of intimacy,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). The ubiquity and functionality of mobile phones has contributed to the increasing prevalence of cross-generational social media usage, particularly following the inclusion of location based services and applications in smart phones, thereby rendering smart phones an invaluable aspect of daily life. The shift in the relationship between place, time and presence is evidenced through the remediation of older applications of maps to location based services such as Google Maps and Geotagging. Hinton and Hjorth cite Bolter and Grusin’s (1999) definition of remediation as, “the dynamic and interdependent relationship between new and old technologies,” (2013, p.123). This is evidenced through the development of location based services such as Google Maps to the functionality of Facebook locations, which consequently alters how the relationship between mobile media users and place, time and social media presence.

The integration of LBSs with social media in smart phones, and its subsequent effect on the mobility of social media, is also scrutinised in Hinton and Hjorth’s chapter. It is stated that the increased media mobility has resulted in, “the expansion of cartographies enabled by LBS devices and mobile apps, and the development of location-based social apps that blend social relationships with geography,” (Ibid). Here, Hinton and Hjorth established the framework through which they examine the relationship between location based services, their functions and their place in mobile media. The expansion of cartographies by the advent of LBSs can be illustrated through the rising popularity of smart phone app Pokémon Go, which alters the user’s relationship with place and space through immersive experiences with nearby locations, mapped via new cartographical technologies. The inclusion of LBSs in smart phones has served to improve their functionality and prevalence amongst a wider demographic, as consumers would be unwilling to purchase a separate location based device, such as GPS. From this, it can be deduced that this led to the development of locative-based mobile games such as Pokémon Go and FourSquare, which contributed to the shift in macro and micro perceptions of place and space. This in turn can be attributed to the immersive nature of new locative based services and their innumerable applications for smart phones.

Following the advent of smart phones, the public’s perception of mobile technology experienced a shift from being ‘online’ or ‘offline’, leading to the merging of the physical and virtual world. The practice of cartography, Hinton and Hjorth posit, “links space with place, where place is the concept of a space that has meaning ascribed to it,” (2013, p.126). This relationship between space and place is underscored through locative media, and its varying applications available to consumers via smart phones. In order to better conceptualise the relationship between space and place through locative technologies, Hinton and Hjorth draw parallels between perceptions of place and space, and how they have changed due to the increasing popularity and quality of camera phones and photo editing applications such as Hipstamatic. The notion of place, as put forward by Hinton and Hjorth, is explored as being, “not only a space with geographic contours, [but] a space that operates across many levels: imagined and lived, social and physical,” (Ibid). Through this, it can be deduced that through the amalgamation of Location Based Services and smart phone cameras, there is greater emotional value attributed to place than space, as it determines consumers’ relationship with the physical and virtual world.

The prevalence of smart phone applications such as Hipstamatic and Instagram, particularly their accessibility and functionality, has merged the social with the personal through social media. It is argued in Farman that consumers’ notions of virtual space are, “dissolving”, with the history of the term ‘virtuality’ revealing, “that the intimate relationship between the virtual and the ‘actual’ has always been historically assumed,” (Farman, J. 2012). This blurring of the distinction between the virtual and actual can be attributed, in part, to the overlaying of the electronic on the geographic through locative based services and smart phone applications such as Instagram and Jiepang. Moreover, the popularity of applications such as Hipstamatic and Instagram can be linked to their functionality, as it renders the application easy to navigate, with buttons integrated within the applications to encourage immediate online posting. This is further compounded by social media companies that “provide their own image-hosting servers that operate almost invisibly to the user,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). This can be illustrated through the integration of Imgur, an image-hosting application available online and through mobile, with social media platform Reddit. Through the prevision of easily accessible image hosting services, applications such as Instagram, Imgur and Hipstamatic impact how place and space are recorded and stored.

The theory of social, locative and mobile media being discussed in Chapter Seven is addressed by Wilken through an analysis of Facebook’s inclusion of location based services. Facebook’s gradual implementation of location based services such as Places, Tagging and Nearby provides a multisensorial view of the social media platform, as it, “establishes Facebook as a location-based services company; [refocuses] the company as a local recommendation service and establishes Facebook as a key local and mobile advertising portal,” (Wilken, R. 2014). This effect is multisensorial for users, as it allows them to decide the particular way through which “text, image and GPS are overlaid to create a multisensorial depiction of a locality,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). The inclusion of location based services in social media demonstrates the gradual breakdown of social, cultural and geographical barriers, particularly through prevalent social media platforms such as Facebook. The ubiquity of location based services due to its functionality and accessibility can also be attributed to its advancing technologies, as evidenced through Facebook’s implementation of functions such as Places and Nearby. Through this, it can be deduced that the development of LBSs from a First Generation cartographical device to the multisensorial experience it is now, contributes to the development of notions of place and space.

The advancements in cartographical technology, in particular LBSs, can be attributed to the prevalence of mobile media, such as smart phones through the media evolution. As stated in Hinton and Hjorth, mobile devices “provide us with new ways of mapping meaning to space and creating new places,” (2013, p.134). The advancements in technology regarding locative media impacted the way individuals as consumers create meaning, and expanded the social, cultural and geographical contexts of place and space. This is underscored by the increasing popularity of mobile media and the smart phone, as the implementation of LBSs in smart phones is, “changing how we visualise intimate cartographies through shifting camera-phone practices,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). Through this, it is evident that the advent of LBSs represents the increasing diversity of relationships between consumers of mobile and social media.
















Reference List:

  • Farman, J. 2012, ‘Locative Interfaces and Social Media’, Mobile Interface Theory: Embodied Space and Locative Media, Routledge, New York, pp.35-49
  • Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013, ‘Social, Locative and Mobile Media’, Understanding Social Media, SAGE Publications, London, pp.120-136.
  • Wilken, R. 2014, ‘Places Nearby: Facebook as a location-based social media platform’, New Media & Society, Vol.16, No.7, pp.1087-1103.




Assessment · Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

Locative media – Opportunities and challenge

Tutor&Class: Kai Soh, Thursday 12pm-3pm

Student: Chris Li, 450487970


The concept of locative media is relatively new which dates from Kalnins and Tuter in 2004. It is basic on the technology such as Location-Based Services, net-work technology and digital devices which can receive the information from the LBS. In the concept of ‘locative media’, it does not refer to the technology only, it has more meaning socially. Differing from the tracker or commercial locating service, the locative media contains the creative and participatory content about your location and experience. (Jillian Hamilton, 2009) According to the Internet live Stats, the internet users have increased tenfold from 1999 to 2013. At the end of July 2016, the internet user around the world was over 3.4 billion. So far, the number has increased to 3.6 billion. (Internet live Stats, 2017) Meanwhile, the mobile phone users in the world will be over 4.43 billion in 2017 and smartphone users will be over 2.32 billion (Statista, 2017). Since the locative media is related to the increase of quantity and quality of Internet service and smartphone availability, we can predict that recent years will we can see the rapid development of locative media. On the one hand, the locative media will bring opportunities to mediated interactions. On the other hand, there will also be plenty of challenge in the future. In this context, the opportunities and challenge of the locative media will be discussed.

(Internet lives Stats, 2016)



(eMarket 2017)


The concept of locative media

The locative media refers to, but not limited to, tagging the content. It can break the boundary of physical world and virtual world. There are several forms of the locative media. On the one hand, it can be the connection between the users of GPS enabled device and information of the location. This information represents the relationship between the media content and the geographic location. When you are approaching to somewhere, the content such as images of the location as well as the coordinates will be available to you. This allows the users to have a better and more precise information about the location that they are currently located in, the scenery that they are looking at or the concert they are attending. On the other hand, the locative media can record the location and their pathway during some time. Thus the connection between each ‘point’ of the location forms, and the media content of a certain location point will be more abundant. In conclusion, the locative media is a kind of medium. The media itself is not related to the location all the time. The content of media, however, is about location or related to location.

Nowadays, many media forms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instgram have the function of locating base on Location-Based services technology. These media themselves are not related to the location at all. However, many contents in these media are location-related. Thus, under some conditions, these media can be locative media. With the increase number of this kind of social media, the locative media will also have a huge development.


In Nabo, you can find your suburb where you live. In this applications, the location is an important concept. You and your neighbors are connected in the same social network. This connection is based on the location. Meanwhile, you can upload your location and find new friends or ask for some help. You can find what happens around you and what is on sale. Thus, this social media transfers into a locative media.



The opportunities of the locative media

Since the technology of the Internet and smartphone are becoming more and more mature. The smartphone or other devices with internet accessing and Location-Based services are more affordable. Therefore, the users of current applications that have function of adding location information on their content will increase. Moreover, more and more new application will see the importance of the locative media and adopt Location-Based Services. Thus the quantity and quality of locative media will both blossom. Since the locative media augment the content sharing on the internet with an additional location information. (Lange, 2009) Thus, if we share something on the internet such as advertising an activity, we will share the information below:


  • I am attending this activity;
  • I am here (current location);
  • I am coming from somewhere and about to go another place (pathway);
  • I am seeing this (experience);
  • I am happy or not (feeling)


Therefore, the information will be more multiple, more attractive and more credible. This break the boundary between physical location that the users are currently in or planning to go and the virtual world on the internet. For the users of this applications, they will have more information to help them make choice and have better understanding of what happening in some certain location.


For the organizations or the people who are working with social media, the location information can add more approach to advertise their activities or products. The cost performance of the advertising will increase. Take one of the most popular application, Yelp, as an example. Users can share their experience of the food or the restaurants in this locative media. The business, on the other hand, can push information to the customer based on their location. So, the business can provide different information to different people to maximize the use the information.


The challenge of the locative media

Instead of the convenience and diversity of the locative media, there are still some problems of this media which brings many challenges to the users. The most important thing is the security and privacy. Like Catherine Dwyer mentioned in 2007, the social network even without the locative function has the concern of privacy problem. The users’ information such as personal details will be stolen and used illegally by some people. With the locative function, users’ location information such as your current location and your history location will be recorded and used. For the users, the methods to protect privacy is a new challenge. For example, users can close the function of GPS and the applications with such function when you do not use that. For the business and organizations, how to protect your customers’ information is a new challenge. Meanwhile, for the third party, how to supervise the business or the organizations to prevent them to use that in an illegal way is a huge challenge.


My campaign: The Con

Go back to my campaign. when we advertising this activity on Facebook or Twitter, we can add our location into the information. Thus, we can tell students where the concert will happen. On one hand, they can come to attend our concert more easily. On the other hand, they can also find what is around that location like the restaurants or landscape. Moreover, after the participators of the game, they are asked to share the experience and image of the concert. If they can add location information, the shared information will be more attractive and more comprehensive. If their friends who have never heard of our activity or this free student concert happened be nearby, they may be interested in the concert and find that it is very convenient for them to attend it. It is possible that more people may attend.





[1] Behrendt, F. (2012). The sound of locative media. Convergence18(3), 283-295.

[2] Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2012). A review of locative media, mobile and embodied spatial interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies70(1), 66-71.

[3] Wilken, R. (2012). Locative media: From specialized preoccupation to mainstream fascination.

[4] Tuters, M., & Varnelis, K. (2006). Beyond locative media: Giving shape to the internet of things. Leonardo39(4), 357-363.

[5] Hamilton, Jillian. (2009) Ourplace: the convergence of locative media and online participatory culture The Proceedings of OZCHI 2009, 23-27 November 2009

[6] Dwyer, C., Hiltz, S., & Passerini, K. (2007). Trust and privacy concern within social networking sites: A comparison of Facebook and MySpace. AMCIS 2007 proceedings, 339.

Assessment · Assessment 3

Participation and Users Created Content

Class: Thursday

Teacher: Fiona Andreallo

Student: Xiaoluan Yang 460225988

Participation and User Created Content

This essay bases on the article, Participation and User Created Content, written by Hinton and Hjorth in 2013 and contains my personal understanding after referencing other related knowledge and examples.


Participation is regarded as the term to describe the distinctive function of social media, say Hinton and Hjorth (2013). With the rapid development of web 2.0 and the increasing use of electronic equipment, people browse the Internet more frequent than before. Meanwhile, new media platforms provide users with opportunities to interact and communicate with others online and hence shift their role from audiences to participants of the Internet world. The online interactions could be receiving or giving a “like” to others’ Facebook post, or maintaining a private blog (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). Blog owners maintain their own cyberspaces through uploading blogs, photos, and videos; in addition, they may interact with their fans and followers by commenting and discussing. The relationship between the Internet, social media and participants is tight. Social media rely on users to evolve and develop, however, without the Internet connection, users could not access to the media platform to create digital content and then they could not become participants.

In the article written by Flew (2008), participation is a concept used in at least two ways. First, from the perspective of digital devices, the access to the new media is unequal. For example, Rural Gujarat is where people lack electricity and other basic fundamental facilities, life in there is hard and the Internet seems far away from them. Another use of the concept is that in the growing creative industries, participation links to the wider digital democratic content.

Users as producers – “Produsers”

The rise of digital media, especially the Web 2.0 environment, has changed online audiences into participants. Media based on the Internet could be regarded as a communication platform which audiences act as generators, from the politics perspective, Gross (2009) gives the attitude that this platform provides citizens with chances to rise their opinions as a “produser”, the term created by Bruns (2005, 2006). Hinton and Hjorth compare two kinds of participation behavior, first is a simply reply on a news event or a short comment. This is named “user generated content” (UGC), in which user respond content created by others. The second one is a more involved behavior, known as “user created content” (UCC), in which users create content by themselves. For example, bloggers post their own articles on blogs, or internet-savvy upload their own videos on YouTube. These two kinds of participations, no matter the degree of involvement, tell us that the online users are not passive audiences but active produser. Henry Jenkins (1992, cited in Hinton &Hjorth, 2013), a cultural theorist who is passionate about studying the way how audiences get involved with the media points out that in fan communities, the role of fans is produser since they do not only throw themselves into communication but also take part in the creation of original media content. In another digital platform, massive multiplayer online games (MMOG), a high degree of player participation is the very reason why games develop and evolve well (Humphreys, 2004). This is because the players themselves create most of the content by following the rules and tools that are provided, thus to this extent, their created content completes the whole design of the game, explains Humphreys (2004).

(Figure 1: UGC)


(Figure2: UCC)


(Figure3: Massive Multiplayer Online Game)

User Created Content(UCC)

The way people record their life change from keep diaries on notebooks to share photos online because of the rapid development of portable electronic devices and the easier access to the internet (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). In the new media environment, people are able to create and forward media content at almost anywhere and anytime. Same as the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG), the successful operation of social media platforms, such as Facebook, YouTube and twitter, rely heavily on the user created content. User created content is regarded as the media content created intentionally by users. The intention of producing this content might be valuable to some degree. For instance, Wikipedia is a well-known platform in which encourages online citizen to share knowledge of different fields. Everyone could have the access to create a term and give the introduction of it. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) argue that compared with the traditional encyclopedia that is strictly edited, Wikipedia could not provide a hundred percent precise knowledge as the traditional one could. Tim (2005) believes that even small bugs could be fixed thoroughly on this open space with enough spectators. However, Hinton and Hjorth support their argument with evaluation of crowd behavior and believe a majority of users would stop correcting error after hearing the strong opinions from individuals. Therefore, while online produsers provide valuable knowledge, they also give information with questionable reliability.

Screen Shot 2017-04-21 at 17.12.38.png

(Figure 4: Wikipedia)

Citizen journalism

The widely use of social media accelerates the trend of sharing personal opinions online. In cyberspace, users are allowed to produce content and give respond on almost all content, even news events (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). Citizen journalism is the term describe the disagreement between traditional news reporting and participative media, it is accompanied by the emergence of portable electronic devices such as the smartphone with camera function and access to the Internet. In addition, the trend of using social media platforms for moment recording drives them to share major and minor things of their life, and when this extends to the share or responds on news events, it forms citizen journalism (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). The main platform occurs citizen journalism is the blog with a user-friendly system that allows people to publish news events in their daily life even they do not have the technical skills to maintain the website. This way of news publication becomes more convenient after the smartphone becoming increasingly available. With mobile smartphones, photos and videos could be taken immediately when events occur, and similarly, web citizen could view the publication instantly. Furthermore, when the content is published on social media with higher popularity than blog, such as Twitter and Facebook, the speed of exposure is more dramatic and even uncontrollable. Under this situation, traditional media could not catch up with this striking exposure speed for making a response.


(Figure 5: Citizen journalism. Retrieve from:

Criticisms of citizen journalism

There are three main kinds of criticisms of citizen journalism in the book of Hinton and Hjorth (2013). Firstly, compared with professional journalists who are well trained in writing news articles and holding interviews, citizen journalists do not have enough skills to publish a formal news report. To all intents and purposes, this argues that those social media platforms that citizen journalists publish news events do not have the ability to help them become professional journalists. Even some of the citizen journalists are skillful writers with critical thinking, professional journalists are still more important in no matter real society or cyberspace. Another criticism is that the editing process of citizen journalism is rough whereas that of the traditional journalism is rigorous. Professional journalists write news articles carefully and with a lot of attention to details, however, citizen journalists complete that process without particular rules. This would lead to a consequence that any political affiliations or prejudices in terms of citizen journalist are difficult to determine. Last but not least, citizen journalists are more vulnerable than journalists who work in news companies when legal retaliation happen on them because they lack the employee protection from news companies.


The Internet is a double-edged sword that allows everyone to produce almost any content anytime and anywhere with Internet connection. Its convenience wins popularity but the content shared by Internet users might be overload or unreliable. Smart electronic devices and social media platforms encourage people to create digital content, which shifts online audience to “produser” rapidly. When produsers create news article with photos or video frequently, criticism journalism occurs. New media platforms assist citizens to get rid of the control of the government, providing stories and pictures that professional journalists could not gain (Bird, 2011). However, citizen journalism also brings issues about impartiality, quality and reliability. In the future study, whether designing a social platform or game, it is important to know how to get users involved in and to create digital content, also, what needs to be considered carefully is the potential of participation degree because it could be different under different conditions.


Bird, S. E. (2011). Are we all produsers now? Convergence and media audience

practices. Cultural Studies25(4-5), 502-516. Retrieved from:

Bruns, A. (2005). ‘Axel Bruns at iDC’, Institute for Distributed Creativity. [online].

Available at: http:// 09/axel_bruns_work.html [Accessed 24 May 2010].

Bruns, A. (2006). Towards Produsage: Future for User-Led Content Production.

[online] Available at: [Accessed 24 May 2010].

Flew, T. (2008). 20 key new media concepts: pp.21-37. New Media: An introduction

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gross, L. (2009). My media studies: cultivation to participation. Television & New

Media10(1), 66-68.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Participation and User Created

Content Understanding Social Media (pp. 55 – 76). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hoobler, N., Humphreys, G., & Agrawala, M. (2004). Visualizing competitive

behaviors in multi-user virtual environments. In Visualization, 2004. IEEE (pp. 163-170). IEEE.

Tim, O. (2005). What is web 2.0? Design patterns and business models for the next

generation of software. Retrieved from: