Uncategorized · Assessment · Assessment 3

UCC and Digital Marketing

Vince Jin

SID: 460320227

Kai Thursday 12pm


Internet has become ubiquitous and of a vital need to human social life, people are keen on participating in virtual communities much more frequently than ever. As the Internet shift from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0, the concept of UCC (User Created Content) was introduced, because users expect to create contents that they prefer rather than consuming media contents passively (Hsu & Hsu, 2008). Since then, Internet companies provide various UCC services for meeting users’ demand, and these services have already dominated the web traffic. For instance, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube and Wikipedia are platforms that users are able to share their knowledge and get engage with others. Despite the different function, they all have one thing in common that users are the producers. Taking Facebook as the example, which is the most popular SNS, used by about 1.8 billion users, where people could generate their own media contents. Facebook is only a platform and does not publish any information, but construct a community for users to express personal ideas. It is an unalterable tendency that users are no longer just consumers but also creators.


In the reading of Participation and User Created Content (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013), authors firstly narrate the emergence of social media and emphasize the media ‘participation’ for introducing the topic of UCC. They present the background of the concept of UCC and make a distinction from UGC. Then, they state that users as producers are capable to create on the Internet due to the Web 2.0 and explain it with sorts of examples. After that, a specific explanation of  UCC was given as well as the understanding to this concept. In the following parts, what factors that drive the UCC are being discussed with the example of citizen journalism.

The Core Concept of UCC

According to Rhie, Kim and Lee (2010), UCC is representative of Web 2.0, also recognized as the User Generated Content (UGC). However, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) pointed out that there is a slight difference between UCC and UGC. UCC is content  entirely created by users while UGC is users forward something that is not created by themselves. For example, people upload some videos which are filmed by themselves to the Youtube, it recognized as the UCC. On the contrary, UGC is the video shared from other websites rather than filmed by the uploader. This difference has been confirmed by many scholars that UGC is not 100 percent of UGC.

In the last decade, the Internet users have witnessed the blossom of the virtual community. The Internet is a global scale community where users are able to make contacts with users from different nations, it is much beyond the physical social circle. Mass of contents are stored on the Internet, these contents are uploaded by digital communication where created by users (Shim & Lee, 2009) and consumed by the users (Kim, Moon & Kim, 2012). Therefore, users play vigorous roles and interact on the Internet rather than it is leading by network companies. Basically, there are three criteria to be fulfilled to define UCC: 1. Content is available in public over the Internet; 2. Reflects a “certain amount of creative effort,”; 3. “created outside of professional routines and practices” (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).

Most UCC sites are non-commercial at the stage of start-up, whereas it has become an economic phenomenon recently (Vickery & Wunsch-Vincent, 2007). For example, Wechat is the major mobile social network site in China. In the beginning, it only provides interactional function and users could share life by posting photos with descriptions. After years, Wechat replace the QQ (a desktop SNS like MSN) to be the most used one in China because of it could be used on mobile phones. Due to the fact that a large population of users, Wechat decided to generate profit by offering promotion services to whatever large or small scale enterprises or even individuals. In addition, users so far could play mobile games on Wechat which is not belittled portion of their income.


UCC and Digital Marketing

Consumers believe the opinions or comments of their peers are more reliable than the information advertised by a brand (Carlson, 2016). In the cyberspace, consumers have ability to get access to reviews and ratings of a product easily. they could make a judgement whether a product worth its price by hearing others’ idea after their experience of the product. Therefore, a brand recognition might be build up once netizens have good feedbacks on a product.

Compare to the traditional marketing, digital marketing seems more effective because of the characteristics of internet. Besides a more large number of population, informations are transferred rapidly that cannot not be measured on the Internet. The most important point is that recommendation from other purchasers can have a huge influence on a consumer’s attitude towards a product. That represents a brand image could be created easily if a company really did an excellent digital marketing with the h1belp of UCC.

Red Bull is a sort of energy drinks sold by Red Bull GmbH, establish since 1987. It ranked 76th on the Forbes Most Powerful Brand List in 2015, and their drinks sold in over 170 countries. Red Bull tried to drive awareness of the extension of the brand and to sale their tropical flavoured “Summer Edition” energy drink for the Australian market, so they stared a social media campaign on Instagram (Quigley, 2016). In order to get attention of audiences on the new look of the cans, they portray summer days by posting images and videos which are using the yellow filters with the #thissummer hashtag . Red Bull had achieved a great success to engage audiences to create their contents in the campaign. The results of the campaign led to 9-point lift in favourablility of their brand and 1.2 million consumers had been reached.

How UCC Apply to the Campaign “The Con”

In our campaign, we apply UCC into our campaign greatly. Both two activities which are creating memes of performers and Guessing the music that others humming have reflected the theory. For the first one, the official account would post several memes of performers for the current week and invite others to create memes of these performers with their innovation (see Figure 1). In this activity, users are offered an opportunity to participate in creating their individual content. For the latter event, it is incredibly interesting that one person may holding a portrait of a musician and film a short video of humming a music clip (see Figure 2). The video need to be uploaded to the Youtube and post a status with the link of the video to invite at least three friends to guess what song he/she is humming in the video. Our aim is going to encourage more people to join in the campaign and have intrigued by the classic music. Using UCC might be a feasible method to engage more young people. In addition, contents we expect users to create have satisfied the three conditions of UCC that those contents are puplic avaliable, creativity and the users are all common audiences (neither professionals nor practices).


Utilizing UCC for social media campaigns have received highly attention from marketers. About 65% of young users would have an evaluation by surfing the Internet before purchasing (Carlson, 2016). Consumers are more likely to turn to social networks for advice, which had formed a new assessment method to value an item in their minds. Digital marketers must to seek the potential opportunities to arouse audiences’s passionate of creating. Engage audiences is first priority to have a digital marketing come through. That is the reason why UCC plays a vital role in a campaign.


Carlson, K. (2016). The Future and Importance of UGC in Digital Marketing. Retrieved from https://business.experticity.com/the-future-and-importance-of-ugc-in-digital-marketing/

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013b). Participation and User Created Content. In Understanding Social Media (pp. 55–76). London: SAGE.

Hsu, J. C. J., & Hsu, C. M. (2008). The relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction in a leading Chinese Web 2.0 company. The Business Review, 11(1), 84-89.

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53, 59-68.

Kim, M. S., Moon, Y. J., & Kim, W. G. (2012). How User‐Created‐Content (UCC)    Service Quality Influences User Satisfaction and Behaviour. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l’Administration, 29(3), 255-267.

Quigley, A. (2016). 5 Successful Social Media Campaigns You Can Learn From. Retrieved from https://digitalmarketinginstitute.com/blog/5-successful-social-media-campaigns-you-can-learn-from

Rhie, B. W., Kim, J. W., & Lee, H. J. (2010). User-Created Content Recommendation Using Tag Information and Content Metadata. Management Science and Financial Engineering, 16(2), 29-38.

Shim, S., & Lee, B. (2009). Internet portals’ strategic utilization of UCC and Web 2.0 ecology. Decision Support Systems, 47, 415-423.

Vickery, G., & Wunsch-Vincent, S. (2007). Participative web and user-created content: Web 2.0 wikis and social networking. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Assessment · Assessment 3 · Social Media Communication

MECO6936 Assessment Three

Name: Ashna Mehta

Student I.D.: 430242940

Class: Thursday 9:00am-12:00pm

The impact of location based services (LBSs) on social, locative and mobile media is one of the key concepts explored in Chapter Seven of Hinton and Hjorth’s ‘Understanding Social Media’. The chapter delves into the effects of location based services on a cultural, social and individual level, drawing upon examples of locative services on mobile social media such as FourSquare and Facebook. The chapter addresses the myriad of ways in which mobile social media is employed on a global scale, drawing upon the increasing popularity of smartphones as the primary cause for what Hinton and Hjorth have coined the “media evolution” (2013, p.121). Over the course of the chapter, Hinton and Hjorth acknowledge the shift in public perception of the smart phone from a tool for communication to a networked media tool, fostering the development of social media and games. The core concept of the chapter is the shift in the macro and micro understanding of space and place following the amalgamation of mobile media and social and locative technologies.

The core concept of the chapter is approached in concise, coherent manner, with real world examples of the varying applications of social and locative media. It is established that over time, social, locative and mobile media has transcended barriers of age, gender and location, leading to the creation of “new forms of intimacy and different contexts for the expression of intimacy,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). The ubiquity and functionality of mobile phones has contributed to the increasing prevalence of cross-generational social media usage, particularly following the inclusion of location based services and applications in smart phones, thereby rendering smart phones an invaluable aspect of daily life. The shift in the relationship between place, time and presence is evidenced through the remediation of older applications of maps to location based services such as Google Maps and Geotagging. Hinton and Hjorth cite Bolter and Grusin’s (1999) definition of remediation as, “the dynamic and interdependent relationship between new and old technologies,” (2013, p.123). This is evidenced through the development of location based services such as Google Maps to the functionality of Facebook locations, which consequently alters how the relationship between mobile media users and place, time and social media presence.

The integration of LBSs with social media in smart phones, and its subsequent effect on the mobility of social media, is also scrutinised in Hinton and Hjorth’s chapter. It is stated that the increased media mobility has resulted in, “the expansion of cartographies enabled by LBS devices and mobile apps, and the development of location-based social apps that blend social relationships with geography,” (Ibid). Here, Hinton and Hjorth established the framework through which they examine the relationship between location based services, their functions and their place in mobile media. The expansion of cartographies by the advent of LBSs can be illustrated through the rising popularity of smart phone app Pokémon Go, which alters the user’s relationship with place and space through immersive experiences with nearby locations, mapped via new cartographical technologies. The inclusion of LBSs in smart phones has served to improve their functionality and prevalence amongst a wider demographic, as consumers would be unwilling to purchase a separate location based device, such as GPS. From this, it can be deduced that this led to the development of locative-based mobile games such as Pokémon Go and FourSquare, which contributed to the shift in macro and micro perceptions of place and space. This in turn can be attributed to the immersive nature of new locative based services and their innumerable applications for smart phones.

Following the advent of smart phones, the public’s perception of mobile technology experienced a shift from being ‘online’ or ‘offline’, leading to the merging of the physical and virtual world. The practice of cartography, Hinton and Hjorth posit, “links space with place, where place is the concept of a space that has meaning ascribed to it,” (2013, p.126). This relationship between space and place is underscored through locative media, and its varying applications available to consumers via smart phones. In order to better conceptualise the relationship between space and place through locative technologies, Hinton and Hjorth draw parallels between perceptions of place and space, and how they have changed due to the increasing popularity and quality of camera phones and photo editing applications such as Hipstamatic. The notion of place, as put forward by Hinton and Hjorth, is explored as being, “not only a space with geographic contours, [but] a space that operates across many levels: imagined and lived, social and physical,” (Ibid). Through this, it can be deduced that through the amalgamation of Location Based Services and smart phone cameras, there is greater emotional value attributed to place than space, as it determines consumers’ relationship with the physical and virtual world.

The prevalence of smart phone applications such as Hipstamatic and Instagram, particularly their accessibility and functionality, has merged the social with the personal through social media. It is argued in Farman that consumers’ notions of virtual space are, “dissolving”, with the history of the term ‘virtuality’ revealing, “that the intimate relationship between the virtual and the ‘actual’ has always been historically assumed,” (Farman, J. 2012). This blurring of the distinction between the virtual and actual can be attributed, in part, to the overlaying of the electronic on the geographic through locative based services and smart phone applications such as Instagram and Jiepang. Moreover, the popularity of applications such as Hipstamatic and Instagram can be linked to their functionality, as it renders the application easy to navigate, with buttons integrated within the applications to encourage immediate online posting. This is further compounded by social media companies that “provide their own image-hosting servers that operate almost invisibly to the user,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). This can be illustrated through the integration of Imgur, an image-hosting application available online and through mobile, with social media platform Reddit. Through the prevision of easily accessible image hosting services, applications such as Instagram, Imgur and Hipstamatic impact how place and space are recorded and stored.

The theory of social, locative and mobile media being discussed in Chapter Seven is addressed by Wilken through an analysis of Facebook’s inclusion of location based services. Facebook’s gradual implementation of location based services such as Places, Tagging and Nearby provides a multisensorial view of the social media platform, as it, “establishes Facebook as a location-based services company; [refocuses] the company as a local recommendation service and establishes Facebook as a key local and mobile advertising portal,” (Wilken, R. 2014). This effect is multisensorial for users, as it allows them to decide the particular way through which “text, image and GPS are overlaid to create a multisensorial depiction of a locality,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). The inclusion of location based services in social media demonstrates the gradual breakdown of social, cultural and geographical barriers, particularly through prevalent social media platforms such as Facebook. The ubiquity of location based services due to its functionality and accessibility can also be attributed to its advancing technologies, as evidenced through Facebook’s implementation of functions such as Places and Nearby. Through this, it can be deduced that the development of LBSs from a First Generation cartographical device to the multisensorial experience it is now, contributes to the development of notions of place and space.

The advancements in cartographical technology, in particular LBSs, can be attributed to the prevalence of mobile media, such as smart phones through the media evolution. As stated in Hinton and Hjorth, mobile devices “provide us with new ways of mapping meaning to space and creating new places,” (2013, p.134). The advancements in technology regarding locative media impacted the way individuals as consumers create meaning, and expanded the social, cultural and geographical contexts of place and space. This is underscored by the increasing popularity of mobile media and the smart phone, as the implementation of LBSs in smart phones is, “changing how we visualise intimate cartographies through shifting camera-phone practices,” (Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013). Through this, it is evident that the advent of LBSs represents the increasing diversity of relationships between consumers of mobile and social media.
















Reference List:

  • Farman, J. 2012, ‘Locative Interfaces and Social Media’, Mobile Interface Theory: Embodied Space and Locative Media, Routledge, New York, pp.35-49
  • Hinton, S. Hjorth, L. 2013, ‘Social, Locative and Mobile Media’, Understanding Social Media, SAGE Publications, London, pp.120-136.
  • Wilken, R. 2014, ‘Places Nearby: Facebook as a location-based social media platform’, New Media & Society, Vol.16, No.7, pp.1087-1103.




Assessment · Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

Locative media – Opportunities and challenge

Tutor&Class: Kai Soh, Thursday 12pm-3pm

Student: Chris Li, 450487970


The concept of locative media is relatively new which dates from Kalnins and Tuter in 2004. It is basic on the technology such as Location-Based Services, net-work technology and digital devices which can receive the information from the LBS. In the concept of ‘locative media’, it does not refer to the technology only, it has more meaning socially. Differing from the tracker or commercial locating service, the locative media contains the creative and participatory content about your location and experience. (Jillian Hamilton, 2009) According to the Internet live Stats, the internet users have increased tenfold from 1999 to 2013. At the end of July 2016, the internet user around the world was over 3.4 billion. So far, the number has increased to 3.6 billion. (Internet live Stats, 2017) Meanwhile, the mobile phone users in the world will be over 4.43 billion in 2017 and smartphone users will be over 2.32 billion (Statista, 2017). Since the locative media is related to the increase of quantity and quality of Internet service and smartphone availability, we can predict that recent years will we can see the rapid development of locative media. On the one hand, the locative media will bring opportunities to mediated interactions. On the other hand, there will also be plenty of challenge in the future. In this context, the opportunities and challenge of the locative media will be discussed.

(Internet lives Stats, 2016)



(eMarket 2017)


The concept of locative media

The locative media refers to, but not limited to, tagging the content. It can break the boundary of physical world and virtual world. There are several forms of the locative media. On the one hand, it can be the connection between the users of GPS enabled device and information of the location. This information represents the relationship between the media content and the geographic location. When you are approaching to somewhere, the content such as images of the location as well as the coordinates will be available to you. This allows the users to have a better and more precise information about the location that they are currently located in, the scenery that they are looking at or the concert they are attending. On the other hand, the locative media can record the location and their pathway during some time. Thus the connection between each ‘point’ of the location forms, and the media content of a certain location point will be more abundant. In conclusion, the locative media is a kind of medium. The media itself is not related to the location all the time. The content of media, however, is about location or related to location.

Nowadays, many media forms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instgram have the function of locating base on Location-Based services technology. These media themselves are not related to the location at all. However, many contents in these media are location-related. Thus, under some conditions, these media can be locative media. With the increase number of this kind of social media, the locative media will also have a huge development.


In Nabo, you can find your suburb where you live. In this applications, the location is an important concept. You and your neighbors are connected in the same social network. This connection is based on the location. Meanwhile, you can upload your location and find new friends or ask for some help. You can find what happens around you and what is on sale. Thus, this social media transfers into a locative media.



The opportunities of the locative media

Since the technology of the Internet and smartphone are becoming more and more mature. The smartphone or other devices with internet accessing and Location-Based services are more affordable. Therefore, the users of current applications that have function of adding location information on their content will increase. Moreover, more and more new application will see the importance of the locative media and adopt Location-Based Services. Thus the quantity and quality of locative media will both blossom. Since the locative media augment the content sharing on the internet with an additional location information. (Lange, 2009) Thus, if we share something on the internet such as advertising an activity, we will share the information below:


  • I am attending this activity;
  • I am here (current location);
  • I am coming from somewhere and about to go another place (pathway);
  • I am seeing this (experience);
  • I am happy or not (feeling)


Therefore, the information will be more multiple, more attractive and more credible. This break the boundary between physical location that the users are currently in or planning to go and the virtual world on the internet. For the users of this applications, they will have more information to help them make choice and have better understanding of what happening in some certain location.


For the organizations or the people who are working with social media, the location information can add more approach to advertise their activities or products. The cost performance of the advertising will increase. Take one of the most popular application, Yelp, as an example. Users can share their experience of the food or the restaurants in this locative media. The business, on the other hand, can push information to the customer based on their location. So, the business can provide different information to different people to maximize the use the information.


The challenge of the locative media

Instead of the convenience and diversity of the locative media, there are still some problems of this media which brings many challenges to the users. The most important thing is the security and privacy. Like Catherine Dwyer mentioned in 2007, the social network even without the locative function has the concern of privacy problem. The users’ information such as personal details will be stolen and used illegally by some people. With the locative function, users’ location information such as your current location and your history location will be recorded and used. For the users, the methods to protect privacy is a new challenge. For example, users can close the function of GPS and the applications with such function when you do not use that. For the business and organizations, how to protect your customers’ information is a new challenge. Meanwhile, for the third party, how to supervise the business or the organizations to prevent them to use that in an illegal way is a huge challenge.


My campaign: The Con

Go back to my campaign. when we advertising this activity on Facebook or Twitter, we can add our location into the information. Thus, we can tell students where the concert will happen. On one hand, they can come to attend our concert more easily. On the other hand, they can also find what is around that location like the restaurants or landscape. Moreover, after the participators of the game, they are asked to share the experience and image of the concert. If they can add location information, the shared information will be more attractive and more comprehensive. If their friends who have never heard of our activity or this free student concert happened be nearby, they may be interested in the concert and find that it is very convenient for them to attend it. It is possible that more people may attend.





[1] Behrendt, F. (2012). The sound of locative media. Convergence18(3), 283-295.

[2] Bilandzic, M., & Foth, M. (2012). A review of locative media, mobile and embodied spatial interaction. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies70(1), 66-71.

[3] Wilken, R. (2012). Locative media: From specialized preoccupation to mainstream fascination.

[4] Tuters, M., & Varnelis, K. (2006). Beyond locative media: Giving shape to the internet of things. Leonardo39(4), 357-363.

[5] Hamilton, Jillian. (2009) Ourplace: the convergence of locative media and online participatory culture The Proceedings of OZCHI 2009, 23-27 November 2009

[6] Dwyer, C., Hiltz, S., & Passerini, K. (2007). Trust and privacy concern within social networking sites: A comparison of Facebook and MySpace. AMCIS 2007 proceedings, 339.

Assessment · Assessment 3

Participation and Users Created Content

Class: Thursday 12.pm

Teacher: Fiona Andreallo

Student: Xiaoluan Yang 460225988

Participation and User Created Content

This essay bases on the article, Participation and User Created Content, written by Hinton and Hjorth in 2013 and contains my personal understanding after referencing other related knowledge and examples.


Participation is regarded as the term to describe the distinctive function of social media, say Hinton and Hjorth (2013). With the rapid development of web 2.0 and the increasing use of electronic equipment, people browse the Internet more frequent than before. Meanwhile, new media platforms provide users with opportunities to interact and communicate with others online and hence shift their role from audiences to participants of the Internet world. The online interactions could be receiving or giving a “like” to others’ Facebook post, or maintaining a private blog (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). Blog owners maintain their own cyberspaces through uploading blogs, photos, and videos; in addition, they may interact with their fans and followers by commenting and discussing. The relationship between the Internet, social media and participants is tight. Social media rely on users to evolve and develop, however, without the Internet connection, users could not access to the media platform to create digital content and then they could not become participants.

In the article written by Flew (2008), participation is a concept used in at least two ways. First, from the perspective of digital devices, the access to the new media is unequal. For example, Rural Gujarat is where people lack electricity and other basic fundamental facilities, life in there is hard and the Internet seems far away from them. Another use of the concept is that in the growing creative industries, participation links to the wider digital democratic content.

Users as producers – “Produsers”

The rise of digital media, especially the Web 2.0 environment, has changed online audiences into participants. Media based on the Internet could be regarded as a communication platform which audiences act as generators, from the politics perspective, Gross (2009) gives the attitude that this platform provides citizens with chances to rise their opinions as a “produser”, the term created by Bruns (2005, 2006). Hinton and Hjorth compare two kinds of participation behavior, first is a simply reply on a news event or a short comment. This is named “user generated content” (UGC), in which user respond content created by others. The second one is a more involved behavior, known as “user created content” (UCC), in which users create content by themselves. For example, bloggers post their own articles on blogs, or internet-savvy upload their own videos on YouTube. These two kinds of participations, no matter the degree of involvement, tell us that the online users are not passive audiences but active produser. Henry Jenkins (1992, cited in Hinton &Hjorth, 2013), a cultural theorist who is passionate about studying the way how audiences get involved with the media points out that in fan communities, the role of fans is produser since they do not only throw themselves into communication but also take part in the creation of original media content. In another digital platform, massive multiplayer online games (MMOG), a high degree of player participation is the very reason why games develop and evolve well (Humphreys, 2004). This is because the players themselves create most of the content by following the rules and tools that are provided, thus to this extent, their created content completes the whole design of the game, explains Humphreys (2004).

(Figure 1: UGC)


(Figure2: UCC)


(Figure3: Massive Multiplayer Online Game)

User Created Content(UCC)

The way people record their life change from keep diaries on notebooks to share photos online because of the rapid development of portable electronic devices and the easier access to the internet (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). In the new media environment, people are able to create and forward media content at almost anywhere and anytime. Same as the massive multiplayer online game (MMOG), the successful operation of social media platforms, such as Facebook, YouTube and twitter, rely heavily on the user created content. User created content is regarded as the media content created intentionally by users. The intention of producing this content might be valuable to some degree. For instance, Wikipedia is a well-known platform in which encourages online citizen to share knowledge of different fields. Everyone could have the access to create a term and give the introduction of it. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) argue that compared with the traditional encyclopedia that is strictly edited, Wikipedia could not provide a hundred percent precise knowledge as the traditional one could. Tim (2005) believes that even small bugs could be fixed thoroughly on this open space with enough spectators. However, Hinton and Hjorth support their argument with evaluation of crowd behavior and believe a majority of users would stop correcting error after hearing the strong opinions from individuals. Therefore, while online produsers provide valuable knowledge, they also give information with questionable reliability.

Screen Shot 2017-04-21 at 17.12.38.png

(Figure 4: Wikipedia)

Citizen journalism

The widely use of social media accelerates the trend of sharing personal opinions online. In cyberspace, users are allowed to produce content and give respond on almost all content, even news events (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). Citizen journalism is the term describe the disagreement between traditional news reporting and participative media, it is accompanied by the emergence of portable electronic devices such as the smartphone with camera function and access to the Internet. In addition, the trend of using social media platforms for moment recording drives them to share major and minor things of their life, and when this extends to the share or responds on news events, it forms citizen journalism (Hinton & Hjorth, 2013). The main platform occurs citizen journalism is the blog with a user-friendly system that allows people to publish news events in their daily life even they do not have the technical skills to maintain the website. This way of news publication becomes more convenient after the smartphone becoming increasingly available. With mobile smartphones, photos and videos could be taken immediately when events occur, and similarly, web citizen could view the publication instantly. Furthermore, when the content is published on social media with higher popularity than blog, such as Twitter and Facebook, the speed of exposure is more dramatic and even uncontrollable. Under this situation, traditional media could not catch up with this striking exposure speed for making a response.


(Figure 5: Citizen journalism. Retrieve from: https://cherispeak.wordpress.com/2014/06/03/citizen-journalism/)

Criticisms of citizen journalism

There are three main kinds of criticisms of citizen journalism in the book of Hinton and Hjorth (2013). Firstly, compared with professional journalists who are well trained in writing news articles and holding interviews, citizen journalists do not have enough skills to publish a formal news report. To all intents and purposes, this argues that those social media platforms that citizen journalists publish news events do not have the ability to help them become professional journalists. Even some of the citizen journalists are skillful writers with critical thinking, professional journalists are still more important in no matter real society or cyberspace. Another criticism is that the editing process of citizen journalism is rough whereas that of the traditional journalism is rigorous. Professional journalists write news articles carefully and with a lot of attention to details, however, citizen journalists complete that process without particular rules. This would lead to a consequence that any political affiliations or prejudices in terms of citizen journalist are difficult to determine. Last but not least, citizen journalists are more vulnerable than journalists who work in news companies when legal retaliation happen on them because they lack the employee protection from news companies.


The Internet is a double-edged sword that allows everyone to produce almost any content anytime and anywhere with Internet connection. Its convenience wins popularity but the content shared by Internet users might be overload or unreliable. Smart electronic devices and social media platforms encourage people to create digital content, which shifts online audience to “produser” rapidly. When produsers create news article with photos or video frequently, criticism journalism occurs. New media platforms assist citizens to get rid of the control of the government, providing stories and pictures that professional journalists could not gain (Bird, 2011). However, citizen journalism also brings issues about impartiality, quality and reliability. In the future study, whether designing a social platform or game, it is important to know how to get users involved in and to create digital content, also, what needs to be considered carefully is the potential of participation degree because it could be different under different conditions.


Bird, S. E. (2011). Are we all produsers now? Convergence and media audience

practices. Cultural Studies25(4-5), 502-516. Retrieved from: http://ezproxy.library.usyd.edu.au/login?url=http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09502386.2011.600532#

Bruns, A. (2005). ‘Axel Bruns at iDC’, Institute for Distributed Creativity. [online].

Available at: http:// distributedcreativity.typepad.com/idc_events/2005/ 09/axel_bruns_work.html [Accessed 24 May 2010].

Bruns, A. (2006). Towards Produsage: Future for User-Led Content Production.

[online] Available at: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/4863/1/4863_1.pdf [Accessed 24 May 2010].

Flew, T. (2008). 20 key new media concepts: pp.21-37. New Media: An introduction

Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gross, L. (2009). My media studies: cultivation to participation. Television & New

Media10(1), 66-68.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Participation and User Created

Content Understanding Social Media (pp. 55 – 76). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hoobler, N., Humphreys, G., & Agrawala, M. (2004). Visualizing competitive

behaviors in multi-user virtual environments. In Visualization, 2004. IEEE (pp. 163-170). IEEE.

Tim, O. (2005). What is web 2.0? Design patterns and business models for the next

generation of software. Retrieved from:


Assessment · Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

Social media games: Connected or disconnected from the real world?

Social media games are games we play in social media networks. Compared with traditional games, they are not only for entertainment but also for relationship building (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 99). Social media games are casual games which can be enjoyably played without demanding high level of attention (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 103). Players of social media games have different motivations and the demographics are changed compared with conventional computer games. Social media games have many distinct characteristics.

social-network-games-on-facebook-and-googleFirstly, they are generally easy to learn and you don’t need to be a game master to get involved. You will find it much easier to be engaged and you are less likely to leave the game out of frustration (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 103). Research (Contestabile) shows this is probably the reason why social media games appeal more older demographic (age from 30-60, with the average of 43 years old, female). Because they are easier to grasp and advance through a short period of time. You won’t get hash punishment for failure in social media games. They normally set much easier challenges, unlike those hard computer games and they will reward players for every improvement. There is generally no final winner or loser in social media games so players don’t need to be fear of fail.

Secondly, social media games are light-attention mode of engagement (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 104) and also allow “Asynchronous gameplay”. This feature is also recognised as one of the most distinctive characteristic of casual games. This means players don’t even need to arrange a period of specific time to play. Instead, they can play when they have work break, when they are waiting for the bus, when they are watching television or even when they go to the washroom. They also don’t require players of the same community to play at the same time. So social media games allow players to be present in two different social places at once, thus making boundary between work and leisure blur (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 104). Our life is full of time fragments and this enables us to play social media games at any time, any places and any occasion. 71fec969gw1ew13p82m3sj20go0b3aap

In addition, social media games represent the new economics of game production. They are not only popular but also can be as profitable as PC-based conventional games. They can generate revenue from advertising, in-game purchases and promotional marketing (Shin and Shin, 2011, cited in Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 107). Generally lower cost is required to develop a social media game but the outcome is tremendous. SNSs such as Facebook can provide social media game developers extra benefits. For example, developers are able to gain access to their players’ friends’ lists if they develop social media games for Facebook. This enables developers to collect more data and get access to more potential customers.

Happy Farm was a famous social media game in China. It is almost one of the most popular MMOGs in record. At the height of its popularity, there were 23 million daily active users logging on to the Happy Farm everyday (Happy Farm, 2009). In the game, players can grow crops in their farm, trade with other players, sell their produce and even steal from neighbours. A player can use real money to do in-game purchases for virtual goods such as seeds for their farm. In-game purchases are small payments made by players to increase their utility within their games (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 107). Zynga has said before that in-game purchases can account for as much as 90 percent of their revenue (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 107).

Finally, which makes social media games unique lies in its social dimension. Because such MUDs (multi-user games called multi-user dungeons/domains) can produce online communities and forms of rich online sociality (Reid, 1995, cited in Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 101). For example, players can build forums to discuss games and also develop user-generated content thus becoming part of game creators.

However, it is controversial on whether or not players have more social interaction motivation in social media games. Some believe that social motivation is the most significant reason for people to play social media games. While others argue that relaxation and enjoyment are actually the main motivation to for users to play (ISG study, 2010, cited in (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 111).

This difference also brings out another question: Will social media games really help us to social in the reality? Some argue that social media games may not be as social as they seem to be. Rossi (2009, Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 112) thinks that there are at least two kinds of friends in social media games: real friends and instrumental friends. The latter are those friends only existing within social media networks rather than in reality, playing the role of instrument only to help with the game, instead of building intimate relationship.

However, Hinton and Hjorth’s (2013) case study on Happy Farm shows that social media games do play a significant role in social interaction in reality. They believe that the popularity and success of Happy Farm to some extent relate to the context of Chinese society (Hjorth and Arnold 2012, cited in Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 113). Communist theory, Marxist and Maoist philosophy are still a major part of Chinese educational system and Chines students have a firm understanding of these. While Happy Farm’s design mechanic is a capitalism model. In this game players can equip themselves with the morally questionable practices of theft to increase their personal wealth, which is strictly forbidden in communist theory.

4ac8b98297a59One of the main element of Happy Farm is to steal other players’ produce when they are offline, which is a doubtable moral stand. Hinton and Hjorth (2013) think this could be the main function to maintain Chinese players in the game. Many players will keep the game open on their desktop when they are at work, to avoid their farm being stolen. Social interactions are also encouraged in this game. For example, players who help their friends manage their farms can be rewarded.

The demographic changes in Happy Farm game. Instead of young players, the fastest increasing demographics are parents and even grandparents (Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 116). And research shows that this demonstrates the need of inter-generational communication in China. Young players who don’t have time to take care of their farms all the time can ask their parents, uncles, aunts or grandparents to help them and their families are willing to help in this way. So Hinton and Hjorth (2013) believe that this Happy Farm game reveals China’s reality: the tension between the young generation and their families due to the socio-economic mobility. Because the young generation in China have to work in those big business-centred cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen. They are lack of communication with their families and the inter-generational gap between them are larger. In addition, Hinton and Hjorth (2013) think China’s surprisingly high real-estate prices make Happy Farm a nostalgic fantasy which also demonstrates the public’s need in reality.

So are social media games connected or disconnected from our real world? Some scholars believe that games are separate from reality and the game world are only relate to play so players are completely free to try and to fail without fear (Huizinga et. al, cited in Hinton&Hjorth, 2013, p. 103). While on the contrary, Malaby believes that games can be recognised as a mode of experiencing reality (Malaby, 2007). Thus there is no reason to totally detach games from the real world.

All games are developed by human. We are living in a real world and necessarily affected by social factors. So I believe that all games will to some extent reflect reality, especially social media games, as there are more social interactions in social media games. The social influences in reality, such as political model, educational model, moral standard and social value, are unlikely not to be hidden in the games, somewhere in some way.


Hinton, S. & Hjorth, L. (2013). Understanding Social Media, SAGE Publications

Contestabile, G.B. (no date). What are the primary demographics (gender, age, ethnicity, etc) of the average social game enthusiast? Retrieved from


Happy Farm (2009) Retrieved from


Malaby, T.M. (2007). Beyond Play: A New Approach to Games

Games and Culture, Vol2(2), 95-113.


Assessment · Assessment 3 · Social Media Communication

How social media users has changed over time under web2.0?

How social media users has changed over time under web2.0?

“Today, with the popularity of ‘always on’ mobile media allowing users to perpetually surf across social and locative media apps, the internet has become an embedded part of mundane social life.” (Hinton, 2013, pp.7) With the emerging of internet growth, there are increased numbers of people who are using Internet over these years. Indeed, for most of people in this generation, they only receive information and content in the beginning of their internet age. However, as Hinton & Hjorth (2013, pp.10) stated as two- way communication is the fundamental way in the cyberspace, in which social media cannot process further without participation and collaboration.

internet users









20th April this year is the year World Wide Web (www.) introduced in China for 22 years, China is the one of the lucky countries is not only went through Web 1.0, but also Web 2.0. The shift from Web 1.0 to Web 2.0 has defined a new meaning about ‘internet’, which has created a new understanding about how people communication in the modern society. Web 2.0 conduct a type of ‘public sphere’ online, empower individual connect each other to access different information. As the increase number of people who use internet, the public sphere has changed individual over times among internet. In the early stage of internet emerged, internet users just share data with each other in certain location, they did not communicate or exchange context. Hence, the space became a huge problem between users in different location, users can only find information within the space where computers located, they need to find a new way to discover and share information. And in the most of time by then, internet users were simply just receive information, rather than get into ‘two way communication’ model.  People were, even now sometimes, fed by the information which chosen by media companies, such as newspaper, radio or TV program. In the previous internet age, internet weas used by professionals and researchers, only them can have the professional skills to make changes online.  Therefore, the web created, it connect internet from different locations. For most of people when they first time access information is through web page, and it did not develop much until 1990’s when the concept web2.0 started. This public sphere allows individual have their own opinion share with others, like Hunsinger (2014, pp. 7) also state that many people cannot only access their own space, but also access the space created by their friends and communities.


Users started to inform internet by their different background and experiences to create varieties of internet, rather than just ‘one’ standard internet (Hinton, 2013, pp.7). Users can break the limit of production in which people can create their content without knowing professional skill such as C++ code or how to design a website. Facebook, for example, one of the biggest social media platform on Internet, it basically rely on the content users created nowadays. Online users in the virtual online space share their similar interests and personal relation inside of space, where users can understand the concept of ‘sharing’. “Participation can take various forms of agency from user generated content (UGC), in which users forward content made by others, to user created (UCC), in which the content is made by the user” (Hinton, 2013, pp.55). Internet user become controller, for them to decide what kind of information they want, what they do not.

facebook user

During the time when Facebook was still in universities, the feature of ‘photo recognition’ came out (we normally say as ‘tags’ nowadays). Facebook is not simply just came out with one new photo feature, it is a perfect combination of photo and social in one. Put in the simpler way, if there are someone uploaded his/ her photo on Facebook, Facebook technologies will recognize who they are in photos, and their friend can also see who is in his/ her friend zone. This photo sharing activity plays key role in building and maintaining relationships, no matter in online or offline. Facebook had very specific target audience in the beginning, teenagers who are in the universities. With the development of technology nowadays, we can have access mobile network almost everywhere, especially among teens, there are “more than 95% of teens used the Internet in 2012, and about 83% of teen Internet users reported using social media in 2012- an increase from 55% in 2006” (Seo, Houston, Knight, Kennedy & Inglish, 2014, pp. 893). Thus, as commonly known, they also are the most active group on internet over those years. They normally have positive interactions with other people online where they can share information, social networking with others, so that they can manage to create or participate offline events on online space where they satisfied with belonging.

photo tag

In the research which conduct by Seo, Houston, Knight, Kennedy and Inglish (2013, pp.893) shows that the most popular social networking sites (SNS) among teenage is not Facebook, is not twitter, it is YouTube. Truly, among all different forms of SNS on internet, it seems like the most attractive one since combined with images, videos and sounds. Before YouTube launched in 2005, there was no website for internet users to watch videos in one website, they need a website can organize online video. After that, there is a group of people called YouTuber. As mention previously, every individual would share their personal interests online with other people, they gather into one space into a community. As media consumers, we easily categorize self into some kind of communities where we feel belonging. The more internet users use YouTube to watch videos, the more followers YouTubers gain. “Since the rise of the internet in early 1990’s, the world’s network population has grown from the low millions to the low billions” (Shirky, 2016, pp.1), With the number of users growth rapidly from millions to billions, SNS slowly become a tool for organizations generate their business, and understand the importance of web 2.0 is necessary for them. Last year, media have calculated those top earning YouTubers in 2015. They produce and consume social media at the same time. Companies use YouTubers’ reputation on youtube for advertising, and in the most time, companies tend to use promotion and soft advertising straight to sell. That means more subscribers a YouTuber has on their YouTube channel, the higher chance they have to receive an ad. Even if they do not any kind of advertising promotion in their video, but they will receive money from ad organization for the 10 seconds of advertising before the video. In some extent, we fit into the circle which information decided by them.

top earning

It is interesting to see how social media changed over time under web 2.0 along side of social media user experiences. With my social media project on Catspresso, I used Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. Even though there were not many people participate in my campaign, but I gradually understand how different social media users works in term of UGC and UCC environment. As well as, with knowing we, as every individual, fed by the information created for commercial.



Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Chapter 2 What is Web 2.0?. Understanding Social Media (pp. 7- 31). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Chapter 4 Participation and user created content. Understanding Social Media (pp. 55- 76). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.


Hunsinger, J. (2014). Interface and Infrastructure in Social Media. In J. Hunsinger & T. Senft (Eds.), The Social Media Handbook (pp. 5 – 17). New York: Routledge.

Shirky, C. (2011). The Political Power of Social Media. Foreign Affairs, 90, 28 – 41.

Seo, H., Houston, J. B., Knight, L. A. T., Kennedy, E. J., & Inglish, A. B. (2014). Teens’ social media use and collective action. New Media & Society, 16(6), 883- 992.

Assessment · Assessment 3 · Uncategorized

Using the Power of Social Media for Road Safety Campaign


The growth of the Internet on a global scale has been significant. The number of active users of the Internet has reached almost half of world’s population in January 2016, an increase of 10% from January 2015 (We are social, 2016). A similar trend is also happening in the social media. There is a 10% increase in the number of active social media users in the world from January 2015 to January 2016, which make the total number of 2.307 billion users (We are social, 2016). The number shows that social media is a big platform where people can get and share information as well as interact with other users.

Figure 1. The World, Internet, and Social Media

Road Safety as Global Issue

The high number of road fatalities in the world has made road safety become a global issue.  The United Nations Road Safety Collaborations (UNRSC) launched a global plan for Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020 on 11 May 2011 as a way to address the issue, which involved various stakeholders in multiple levels (World Health Organization (WHO), n.d., pp.2-7). The issue is divided into five categories: Road safety management, safer roads and mobility, safer vehicles, safer road users, and post-crash response (WHO, n.d., p.11).The involvement of a wide range of stakeholders from government to non-governmental organization shows the seriousness of the issue that has to be addressed.

Social Media: Variety, Active User, and Participative

Social media has the potentials that could support the realization of road safety campaign’s objective. Firstly, the number of social media platform. Nowadays, there are various social media platforms all over the world from Facebook to LinkedIn. Each platform has their own characteristic and type of audience. For example, Instagram is a platform that enables people to share picture and video to a wide audience. Thus, in using social media, campaign manager could mix and match platforms that best suit the objective and the target audience of the road safety campaign.

Secondly, social media platforms have millions of users that are actively using the platforms as a media to interact with one another. Figure 1 shown Facebook as the number one social platform with 1.590 million users. The opportunity to reach millions of social media active users with minimum cost is something that cannot be missed especially in road safety campaign, which needs to reach broad stakeholders.

Figure 2. Active users in social media platforms (We are social, 2016, p.36)

Finally, the characteristic of social media as a participative media. Shirky (as cited in Fuchs, 2014, p.35) defines social media as an instrument that “increase our ability to share, to co-operate, with one another, and to take collective action…”. Similarly, Hinton and Hjorth (2013, pp.55-61) also states that social media is participative in nature as it enables users to participate in forms of sharing other people’s content (User Generated Content) or creating their content (User Created Content). In giving the users the ability to share and produce contents, social media encourage people to participate in the online platform.

Rheingold (2008, p.100) further outlines three characteristics of participatory media. Firstly, media that allows people to send and receive various kinds of information from and to others over a network. Secondly, media whose strength comes from users’ active participation. Thirdly, “social networks, when amplified by information and communication network, enabling wider, faster, and lower cost coordination of activities” (Castells as cited in Rheingold, 2008, p.100).

It means that every content that people share on the social media would reach their community circle and so on that make the content keep on spreading throughout the community network. Hence, as more people join in the community network to support the cause, the information could reach even wider public far beyond the first circle of users (Jenkins, Ford, & Green, 2013, p.17). It is well suited to the social campaign, as it would need as many people as possible to become aware of the social issue as well as for people to further participate in the distribution of messages convey in the campaign.

 Examples of Road Safety Campaign in Social Media

The road safety campaign has used social media as one of its media. The UNSRC has several social media accounts dedicated to Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020 such as Twitter, Facebook, and Flickr (WHO, 2016).

The UNSRC uses Twitter and Facebook to share road safety contents to its thousands of followers. Its followers then participate in sharing the content with their followers by liking the post, share the post, and retweet the post. Furthermore, the UNSRC used Flickers to invite its followers to create their content and the post it in the Flickr account. It gave the opportunity for users to become the producer and tell their story. Thus, the power of the social media helps the discourse of road safety messages through a wide range of public by both encouraging the UGC and UCC traits in users.

Figure 3. UNRSC Tweet vs Road Safety Tweet

The participative nature of social media has made it possible for other parties not included in the UNSRC list of partners to contribute to road safety campaign by sharing and creating information in their social media account. For example, Road Safety Watch @veillepr. It is a Paris-based Twitter account that is dedicated to tweeting and re-tweet information about road safety from various countries and in multiple languages (https://twitter.com/veillepr?lang=en).

The interesting facts are that the number of followers of Road Safety Watch is exceeded the UNRSC, by 3,186 followers per 21 April 2016, even though Road Safety Watch account is made a year later (https://twitter.com/veillepr?lang=en; https://twitter.com/UNRSC).  It shows that people could contribute to the campaign held by the UNRSC by spreading road safety messages. As it create and share the content, its followers are exposed to the content and might further share it with their followers. Hence, the participative culture of social media is helping the road safety content to spread throughout the even wider Twitter community that have the same interest.

Social Media Project: Indonesia Motorcycle Road Safety Campaign

Inspired by the power of social media and road safety campaign conducted by both individual and organization, the Indonesia Motorcycle Road Safety (IMRS) campaign made to contribute in addressing road safety issue in Indonesia. In regards to the objective and number of audience, the platforms used in the campaign were Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

safety start from you
Figure 4. Meme with road safety message

In applying the concept of social media as participative media, the campaign focused on content that would be of interest to the target audience so that the user interested in sharing as well as creating content, which further encourage through competition. The credibility of the sources also considered as it would factor in the users’ decision to share the information. For example, road safety statistics from World Health Organization and Traffic Corps Indonesian National Police.

who injury fact
Figure 5. WHO Infographic

The competition relates to Indonesia road safety issue to better exposed the users and generate engagement. As Lam, an expert on social media (personal communication, March 9, 2016) explains that statistics that easy to relate could be used to gain people interest to the campaign. To ensure that the users will be interested in the content and shared it with their community, the campaign content also diversified among texts, pictures, info graphics, memes, and videos.

The result of the social media campaign is quite promising. Both Facebook Insight and Twitter Analytics shown that even though both campaign accounts only have a small number of like or followers, they have a significant number of reach and impression.  Likewise, the Iconosquare also show that the number of like are considerably larger than the number of followers. The engagement in the Twitter quiz is another example of UGC and UCC at works. It revealed the willingness of the users to read road safety regulation to answer the quiz and post the answer while at the same time also share the information about quiz to their followers.

merger insight and analytics
Figure 6. FB Insight and Twitter Analytics of IMRS

In brief, the participative nature of the social media helps to bridge the gap between the number of like and reach. The content that is attractive to the users spread out beyond the original account as each user interact with other that have the same interest, and share the content with their community. Thus, it enabled IMRS Campaign to contribute to the discourse of road safety messages with the potential of reaching and engaging more people as long as it is managed consistently.

List of Reference

Fuchs, C. (2014). Social media: A critical introduction. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hinton, S., & Hjorth, L. (2013). Understanding social media. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Jenkins, H., Ford, S., Green, J. (2013). Spreadable media. New York and London: New York University Press

Rheingold, H. (2008). Using participatory media and public voice to encourage civic engagement. In W. L. Bennet (Ed.), Civic life online: Learning how digital media can engage youth (97-118). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008. 97–118.

We are social. (2016). Digital in 2016. Retrieved March 16, 2016, from http://www.slideshare.net/wearesocialsg/digital-in-2016/224

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Global plan for the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020. Retrieved from the World Health Organization Website: http://www.who.int/roadsafety/decade_of_action/plan/plan_english.pdf?ua=1

World Health Organization. (2016). United Nations Road Safety Collaboration. Retrieved April 21, 2016, from http://www.who.int/roadsafety/en/